ℛ TOP-TIER READING from 2013


1
 2013-29 103.9
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Regulations covering scientific experiments on human subjects are strict. ② Subjects must give their informed, written consent, and experimenters must submit their proposed experiments to thorough examination by overseeing bodies. ③ Scientists who experiment on themselves can, functionally if not legally, avoid the restrictions associated with experimenting on other people. ④ They can also sidestep most of the ethical issues involved: nobody, presumably, is more aware of an experiment's potential hazards than the scientist who devised it. ⑤ Nonetheless, experimenting on oneself remains deeply problematic. ⑥ One obvious drawback is the danger involved; knowing that it exists does nothing to reduce it. ⑦ A less obvious drawback is the limited range of data that the experiment can generate. ⑧ Human anatomy and physiology vary, in small but significant ways, according to gender, age, lifestyle, and other factors. ⑨ Experimental results derived from a single subject are, therefore, of limited value; there is no way to know whether the subject's responses are typical or atypical of the response of humans as a group.



▢ anatomy: 해부학, 해부 
▢ associate: 관련시키다, 연관 
▢ atypical: 대표적 예가 아닌, 무정형한 
▢ consent: 동의하다, 승낙하다 
▢ derive: 나오다, 기인하다 
▢ devise: 마련하다, 고안하다 
▢ drawback: 결점, 단점 
▢ ethical: 윤리의, 도덕의 
▢ examination: 시험, 검토 
▢ exist: 존재하다, 있다 
▢ experiment: 실험, 시험 
▢ experimental: 실험의, 경험적인 
▢ experimenter: 실험자 
▢ functionally: 기능상 
▢ generate: 생성하다, 발생시키다 
▢ hazard: 위험, 해이 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ legally: 법적으로, 합법적으로 
▢ oversee: 감독하다, 두루 살피다 
▢ physiology: 생리학, 생리 
▢ potential: 잠재적인, 가능성 있는 
▢ presumably: 아마, 추정하건대 
▢ problematic: 문제의, 의문의 
▢ propose: 제안하다, 제시하다 
▢ regulation: 규제, 규정 
▢ restriction: 제한, 규제 
▢ sidestep: 옆으로 한 발짝 비키다, 회피하다 
▢ significant: 중요한, 의미심장한 
▢ submit: 제출하다, 제시하다 
▢ thorough: 철저한, 완전한 
▢ vary: 달라지다, 다양하다 

2
 2013-34 95.6
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Successful integration of an educational technology is marked by that technology being regarded by users as an unobtrusive facilitator of learning, instruction, or performance. ② When the focus shifts from the technology being used to the educational purpose that technology serves, then that technology is becoming a comfortable and trusted element, and can be regarded as being successfully integrated. ③ Few people give a second thought to the use of a ball-point pen although the mechanisms involved vary ― some use a twist mechanism and some use a push button on top, and there are other variations as well. ④ Personal computers have reached a similar level of familiarity for a great many users, but certainly not for all. ⑤ New and emerging technologies often introduce both fascination and frustration with users. ⑥ As long as the user's focus is on the technology itself rather than its use in promoting learning, instruction, or performance, then one ought not to conclude that the technology has been successfully integrated ― at least for that user.



▢ conclude: 결론짓다, 체결하다 
▢ emerge: 새로운, 떠오르다 
▢ facilitator: 촉진자, 조력자 
▢ familiarity: 친밀함, 잘 알고 있음 
▢ fascination: 매혹, 흥미 
▢ frustration: 좌절, 분노 
▢ instruction: 교육, 지시 
▢ integrate: 통합하다, 포함하다 
▢ integration: 통합, 융합 
▢ introduce: 도입하다, 소개하다 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ mechanism: 장치, 체계 
▢ promote: 홍보하다, 증진하다 
▢ shift: 변화, 전환 
▢ twist: 왜곡하다, 비틀다 
▢ unobtrusive: 삼가는, 겸손한 
▢ variation: 변화, 변형 
▢ vary: 달라지다, 다양하다 

3
 2013-35 88.1
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Workers are united by laughing at shared events, even ones that may initially spark anger or conflict. ② Humor reframes potentially divisive events into merely "laughable" ones which are put in perspective as subservient to unifying values held by organization members. ③ Repeatedly recounting humorous incidents reinforces unity based on key organizational values. ④ One team told repeated stories about a dumpster fire, something that does not seem funny on its face, but the reactions of workers motivated to preserve safety sparked laughter as the stories were shared multiple times by multiple parties in the workplace. ⑤ Shared events that cause laughter can indicate a sense of belonging since "you had to be there" to see the humor in them, and non-members were not and do not. ⑥ Instances of humor serve to enact bonds among organization members. ⑦ Understanding the humor may even be required as an informal badge of membership in the organization.



▢ bond: 채권, 결속 
▢ conflict: 갈등, 분쟁 
▢ divisive: 구별하는, 불화를 일으키는 
▢ enact: 제정하다, 입법하다 
▢ humorous: 우스운, 유머러스한 
▢ incident: 사건, 사고 
▢ indicate: 나타내다, 가리키다 
▢ informal: 비공식, 비형식 
▢ initially: 처음에, 당초에 
▢ laughable: 우스운, 우스꽝스러운 
▢ merely: 단지, 단순히 
▢ motivate: 동기 부여, 의욕 
▢ organization: 조직, 단체 
▢ organizational: 조직적, 기관의 
▢ perspective: 관점, 시각 
▢ potentially: 잠재적으로, 아마도 
▢ reaction: 반응, 반작용 
▢ recount: 이야기하다, 묘사하다 
▢ reframes: 다시 구성하다, …에 틀을 다시 붙이다 
▢ reinforce: 보강하다, 강화하다 
▢ spark: 촉발시키다, 불꽃 
▢ subservient: 보조적인, 부차적인 
▢ unify: 통일하다, 통합하다 
▢ unity: 통합, 단결 

4
 2013-22 84.2
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Prior to file-sharing services, music albums landed exclusively in the hands of music critics before their release. ② These critics would listen to them well before the general public could and preview them for the rest of the world in their reviews. ③ Once the internet made music easily accessible and allowed even advanced releases to spread through online social networks, availability of new music became democratized, which meant critics no longer had unique access. ④ That is, critics and laypeople alike could obtain new music simultaneously. ⑤ Social media services also enabled people to publicize their views on new songs, list their new favorite bands in their social media bios, and argue over new music endlessly on message boards. ⑥ The result was that critics now could access the opinions of the masses on a particular album before writing their reviews. ⑦ Thus, instead of music reviews guiding popular opinion toward art (as they did in preinternet times), music reviews began to reflect ― consciously or subconsciously ― public opinion.



▢ access: 접근, 이용 
▢ accessible: 접근할 수 있는, 사용하기 쉬운 
▢ availability: 유용성, 유효성 
▢ consciously: 의식적으로, 의도적으로 
▢ critic: 비평가, 비판가 
▢ democratize: 민주화하다, 민주적으로 하다 
▢ endlessly: 끝없이, 끊임없이  
▢ exclusively: …만을 위한, 전용의 
▢ laypeople: 일반인, 비전문가 
▢ obtain: 얻다, 획득하다 
▢ preview: 시사, 시연 
▢ prior: 전의, 앞서 
▢ publicize: 알리다, 공개되다 
▢ release: 발표하다, 개봉하다 
▢ simultaneously: 동시에, 일제히 
▢ subconsciously: 잠재 의식으로, 의식하에서 

5
 2013-36 81.9
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① The objective of battle, to "throw" the enemy and to make him defenseless, may temporarily blind commanders and even strategists to the larger purpose of war. ② War is never an isolated act, nor is it ever only one decision. ③ In the real world, war's larger purpose is always a political purpose. ④ It transcends the use of force. ⑤ This insight was famously captured by Clausewitz's most famous phrase, "War is a mere continuation of politics by other means." ⑥ To be political, a political entity or a representative of a political entity, whatever its constitutional form, has to have an intention, a will. ⑦ That intention has to be clearly expressed. ⑧ And one side's will has to be transmitted to the enemy at some point during the confrontation (it does not have to be publicly communicated). ⑨ A violent act and its larger political intention must also be attributed to one side at some point during the confrontation. ⑩ History does not know of acts of war without eventual attribution.



▢ attribute: 특성, 원인으로 여기다 
▢ attribution: 속성, 권한 
▢ capture: 잡다, 포착 
▢ confrontation: 대결, 직면 
▢ constitutional: 헌법의, 헌법상의 
▢ continuation: 연속, 지속 
▢ defenseless: 무방비의, 방어할 수 없는 
▢ entity: 실체, 본질 
▢ eventual: 최후의, 궁극적인 
▢ famously: 유명하게, 잘 알려져 
▢ insight: 통찰력, 보여줌 
▢ intention: 의도, 의사 
▢ mere: 단순한 
▢ objective: 객관적인, 목적 
▢ phrase: 말, 구절 
▢ politics: 정치, 정계 
▢ publicly: 공개적으로, 공식적으로 
▢ strategist: 전략가, 전술가 
▢ temporarily: 일시적으로, 임시로 
▢ transcend: 초월하다, …을 능가하다 
▢ transmit: 전송하다, 전달하다 

6
 2013-33 81.0
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Thanks to newly developed neuroimaging technology, we now have access to the specific brain changes that occur during learning. ② Even though all of our brains contain the same basic structures, our neural networks are as unique as our fingerprints. ③ The latest developmental neuroscience research has shown that the brain is much more malleable throughout life than previously assumed; it develops in response to its own processes, to its immediate and distant "environments," and to its past and current situations. ④ The brain seeks to create meaning through establishing or refining existing neural networks. ⑤ When we learn a new fact or skill, our neurons communicate to form networks of connected information. ⑥ Using this knowledge or skill results in structural changes to allow similar future impulses to travel more quickly and efficiently than others. ⑦ High-activity synaptic connections are stabilized and strengthened, while connections with relatively low use are weakened and eventually pruned. ⑧ In this way, our brains are sculpted by our own history of experiences.



▢ access: 접근, 이용 
▢ assume: 생각하다, 가정하다 
▢ current: 현재의, 전류 
▢ developmental: 개발적인, 발육의 
▢ efficiently: 효율적으로, 효과적으로 
▢ establish: 설립하다, 수립하다 
▢ exist: 존재하다, 있다 
▢ immediate: 즉각적인, 즉시 
▢ impulse: 충동, 자극 
▢ malleable: 두들겨 펼 수 있는, 두드려 펼 수 있는 
▢ neural: 신경의, 신경 중추의 
▢ neuroimaging: 뇌영상 
▢ neuron: 신경 단위 
▢ neuroscience: 신경 과학 
▢ newly: 새로이, 최근 
▢ previously: 이전에, 과거에 
▢ prune: 가지치기하다, 자두 
▢ refine: 정제하다, 개선하다 
▢ relatively: 비교적으로, 상대적으로 
▢ sculpt: 조각 
▢ specific: 특정한, 구체적인 
▢ stabilize: 안정화, 정상화 
▢ strengthen: 강화하다, 강하다 
▢ structural: 구조의 
▢ synaptic: 시냅스의, 시냅시스의 
▢ weaken: 약화시키다, 약해지다 

7
 2013-38 80.6
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Imagine I tell you that Maddy is bad. ② Perhaps you infer from my intonation, or the context in which we are talking, that I mean morally bad. ③ Additionally, you will probably infer that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that I think you should disapprove of her, or similar, given typical linguistic conventions and assuming I am sincere. ④ However, you might not get a more detailed sense of the particular sorts of way in which Maddy is bad, her typical character traits, and the like, since people can be bad in many ways. ⑤ In contrast, if I say that Maddy is wicked, then you get more of a sense of her typical actions and attitudes to others. ⑥ The word 'wicked' is more specific than 'bad'. ⑦ I have still not exactly pinpointed Maddy's character since wickedness takes many forms. ⑧ But there is more detail nevertheless, perhaps a stronger connotation of the sort of person Maddy is. ⑨ In addition, and again assuming typical linguistic conventions, you should also get a sense that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that you should disapprove of her, or similar, assuming that we are still discussing her moral character.



▢ additionally: 또한, 게다가 
▢ assume: 생각하다, 가정하다 
▢ connotation: 의미, 함축 
▢ context: 문맥, 상황 
▢ convention: 관습, 회의 
▢ disapprove: 반대하다, 못마땅해하다 
▢ infer: 추론하다, 추측하다 
▢ intonation: 억양, 인토네이션 
▢ linguistic: 언어의, 언어적인 
▢ moral: 도덕의, 윤리의 
▢ morally: 도덕적으로, 정신적으로 
▢ pinpoint: 정확한, …의 위치를 정확히 나타내다 
▢ specific: 특정한, 구체적인 
▢ wicked: 사악한, 부도덕한 
▢ wickedness: 사악함, 심술궂음 

8
 2013-23 80.3
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Difficulties arise when we do not think of people and machines as collaborative systems, but assign whatever tasks can be automated to the machines and leave the rest to people. ② This ends up requiring people to behave in machine-like fashion, in ways that differ from human capabilities. ③ We expect people to monitor machines, which means keeping alert for long periods, something we are bad at. ④ We require people to do repeated operations with the extreme precision and accuracy required by machines, again something we are not good at. ⑤ When we divide up the machine and human components of a task in this way, we fail to take advantage of human strengths and capabilities but instead rely upon areas where we are genetically, biologically unsuited. ⑥ Yet, when people fail, they are blamed.



▢ accuracy: 정확도, 정확 
▢ alert: 경계, 주의하다 
▢ arise: 발생하다, 생기다 
▢ assign: 부여하다, 할당하다 
▢ automate: 자동화하다 
▢ behave: 행동하다, 처신하다 
▢ biologically: 생물학적으로, 생물학상 
▢ capability: 능력, 가능성 
▢ collaborative: 협력적인, 합작의 
▢ component: 성분, 구성 요소 
▢ differ: 다르다, 차이 
▢ genetically: 유전적으로 
▢ operations: 작업 과정, 운영 
▢ precision: 정밀, 정확 
▢ unsuited: 알맞지 않은, 양립하지 않은 

9
 2013-37 76.6
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Experts have identified a large number of measures that promote energy efficiency. ② Unfortunately many of them are not cost effective. ③ This is a fundamental requirement for energy efficiency investment from an economic perspective. ④ However, the calculation of such cost effectiveness is not easy: it is not simply a case of looking at private costs and comparing them to the reductions achieved. ⑤ There are significant externalities to take into account and there are also macroeconomic effects. ⑥ For instance, at the aggregate level, improving the level of national energy efficiency has positive effects on macroeconomic issues such as energy dependence, climate change, health, national competitiveness and reducing fuel poverty. ⑦ And this has direct repercussions at the individual level: households can reduce the cost of electricity and gas bills, and improve their health and comfort, while companies can increase their competitiveness and their productivity. ⑧ Finally, the market for energy efficiency could contribute to the economy through job and firms creation.



▢ account: 계좌/회계, (다)설명하다/차지하다/말/보고 
▢ aggregate: 총액, 전체 
▢ calculation: 계산, 측정 
▢ competitiveness: 경쟁력, 장점 
▢ contribute: 기여하다, 공헌하다 
▢ direct: 직접의, (다)감독하다 
▢ effectiveness: 효과적인, 유효성 
▢ efficiency: 효율, 능률 
▢ externality: 형식주의, 외면성 
▢ firm: 단단한, (다)기업/회사 
▢ fundamental: 기본적인, 근본적인 
▢ identify: 확인하다, 알아보다 
▢ macroeconomic: 거시경제의 
▢ perspective: 관점, 시각 
▢ productivity: 생산성, 생산력 
▢ promote: 홍보하다, 증진하다 
▢ reduction: 감소, 감축 
▢ repercussion: 영향, 반향 
▢ requirement: 요구, 요건 
▢ significant: 중요한, 의미심장한 

10
 2013-31 75.2
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① In the classic model of the Sumerian economy, the temple functioned as an administrative authority governing commodity production, collection, and redistribution. ② The discovery of administrative tablets from the temple complexes at Uruk suggests that token use and consequently writing evolved as a tool of centralized economic governance. ③ Given the lack of archaeological evidence from Uruk-period domestic sites, it is not clear whether individuals also used the system for personal agreements. ④ For that matter, it is not clear how widespread literacy was at its beginnings. ⑤ The use of identifiable symbols and pictograms on the early tablets is consistent with administrators needing a lexicon that was mutually intelligible by literate and nonliterate parties. ⑥ As cuneiform script became more abstract, literacy must have become increasingly important to ensure one understood what he or she had agreed to.



▢ abstract: 추상적인, 초록 
▢ administrative: 행정의, 사무의 
▢ administrator: 행정관, 관리자 
▢ archaeological: 고고학적인, 고고학상의 
▢ authority: 당국, 권한 
▢ centralize: 집중시키다, 중앙 집권화하다 
▢ collection: 수집, 모음집 
▢ commodity: 상품, 원자재 
▢ consequently: 결과적으로, 그에 따른 
▢ consistent: 일관된, 지속적인 
▢ cuneiform: 설형문자, 쐐기 모양인 
▢ domestic: 국내의, 내수 
▢ evolve: 진화하다, 발전하다 
▢ govern: 통치하다, 지배하다 
▢ governance: 통치, 지배 
▢ identifiable: 알아볼 수 있는, 식별 가능한 
▢ increasingly: 점점, 더욱 더 
▢ intelligible: 이해할 수 있는, 잘 이해되는 
▢ lexicon: 어휘, 사전 
▢ literacy: 읽고 쓰는 능력, 읽고 쓸 줄 앎 
▢ literate: 읽고 쓸 줄 아는, 학식있는 
▢ mutually: 서로, 상호간에 
▢ nonliterate: 문자를 가지지 않은, 원시적인 
▢ pictograms: 암벽화, 통계 도표 
▢ redistribution: 재분배, 의석 수 재분배 
▢ script: 대본, 각본 
▢ token: 토큰, 표시 
▢ widespread: 널리 퍼진, 광범위한 

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