ℛ TOP-TIER READING from 2093


1
 2093-30 134.3
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① If I say to you, 'Don't think of a white bear', you will find it difficult not to think of a white bear. ② In this way, 'thought suppression can actually increase the thoughts one wishes to suppress instead of calming them'. ③ One common example of this is that people on a diet who try not to think about food often begin to think much more about food. ④ This process is therefore also known as the rebound effect. ⑤ The ironic effect seems to be caused by the interplay of two related cognitive processes. ⑥ This dual-process system involves, first, an intentional operating process, which consciously attempts to locate thoughts unrelated to the suppressed ones. ⑦ Second, and simultaneously, an unconscious monitoring process tests whether the operating system is functioning effectively. ⑧ If the monitoring system encounters thoughts inconsistent with the intended ones, it prompts the intentional operating process to ensure that these are replaced by appropriate thoughts. ⑨ However, it is argued, the intentional operating system can fail due to increased cognitive load caused by fatigue, stress and emotional factors, and so the monitoring process filters the inappropriate thoughts into consciousness, making them highly accessible.



▢ accessible: 접근할 수 있는, 사용하기 쉬운 
▢ appropriate: 적절한, 적합한 
▢ attempt: 시도하다, 노력 
▢ cognitive: 인식의, 인지의 
▢ consciously: 의식적으로, 의도적으로 
▢ consciousness: 의식, 인식 
▢ dual: 이중의, 이원적인 
▢ encounter: 만나다, 마주치다 
▢ fatigue: 피로, 피곤 
▢ inappropriate: 부적당한, 알맞지 않은 
▢ inconsistent: 일치하지 않는, 조화되지 않는 
▢ intend: 의도하다, 계획하다 
▢ intentional: 의도적인, 고의적인 
▢ interplay: 상호 작용, 상호 교착 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ ironic: 역설적인, 모순적인 
▢ load: 무게, 부담량 
▢ locate: 위치하다, 찾아내다 
▢ operate: 운영하다, 영업하다 
▢ prompt: 신속한, 촉발하다 
▢ rebound: 반동, 되튐 
▢ simultaneously: 동시에, 일제히 
▢ suppress: 억제하다, 억압하다 
▢ suppression: 진압, 억제 
▢ unconscious: 무의식의, 의식을 잃은 
▢ unrelated: 관련이 없는, 말해지지 않은 

2
 2093-33 109.1
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① Since human beings are at once both similar and different, they should be treated equally because of both. ② Such a view, which grounds equality not in human uniformity but in the interplay of uniformity and difference, builds difference into the very concept of equality, breaks the traditional equation of equality with similarity, and is immune to monist distortion. ③ Once the basis of equality changes so does its content. ④ Equality involves equal freedom or opportunity to be different, and treating human beings equally requires us to take into account both their similarities and differences. ⑤ When the latter are not relevant, equality entails uniform or identical treatment; when they are, it requires differential treatment. ⑥ Equal rights do not mean identical rights, for individuals with different cultural backgrounds and needs might require different rights to enjoy equality in respect of whatever happens to be the content of their rights. ⑦ Equality involves not just rejection of irrelevant differences as is commonly argued, but also full recognition of legitimate and relevant ones.



▢ account: 계좌/회계, (다)설명하다/차지하다/말/보고 
▢ differential: 미분, 차등 
▢ distortion: 왜곡, 곡해 
▢ entail: …을 수반하다, 필요로 하다 
▢ equality: 평등, 동등 
▢ equation: 방정식, 공식 
▢ identical: 똑같은, 동일한 
▢ immune: 면역의, 면제된 
▢ interplay: 상호 작용, 상호 교착 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ irrelevant: 관계가 없는, 부적절한 
▢ legitimate: 합법의, 정당한 
▢ monist: 〔철학〕 일원론자 
▢ recognition: 인식, 인정 
▢ rejection: 거부반응, 거부 
▢ relevant: 관련있는, 적절한 
▢ similarity: 유사점, 비슷함 
▢ treat: 치료하다, (다)처리하다/대우하다 
▢ uniformity: 획일, 일치 

3
 2093-32 99.9
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① Genetic engineering followed by cloning to distribute many identical animals or plants is sometimes seen as a threat to the diversity of nature. ② However, humans have been replacing diverse natural habitats with artificial monoculture for millennia. ③ Most natural habitats in the advanced nations have already been replaced with some form of artificial environment based on mass production or repetition. ④ The real threat to biodiversity is surely the need to convert ever more of our planet into production zones to feed the ever-increasing human population. ⑤ The cloning and transgenic alteration of domestic animals makes little difference to the overall situation. ⑥ Conversely, the renewed interest in genetics has led to a growing awareness that there are many wild plants and animals with interesting or useful genetic properties that could be used for a variety of as-yet-unknown purposes. ⑦ This has led in turn to a realization that we should avoid destroying natural ecosystems because they may harbor tomorrow's drugs against cancer, malaria, or obesity.



▢ alteration: 변화, 변경 
▢ artificial: 인공의, 인위적인 
▢ awareness: 인식, 의식 
▢ biodiversity: 생물의 다양성 
▢ clone: 복제하다, 클론 
▢ conversely: 거꾸로, 역관계에 있어서 
▢ convert: 전환하다, 바꾸다 
▢ distribute: 나눠주다, 배포하다 
▢ diverse: 다양한, 여러 가지의 
▢ diversity: 다양성, 상이 
▢ domestic: 국내의, 내수 
▢ genetic: 유전적인 
▢ genetics: 유전학, 유전적 특징 
▢ habitat: 서식지, 생태 
▢ identical: 똑같은, 동일한 
▢ monoculture: 단일재배, 단식 농법 
▢ obesity: 비만, 과체중 
▢ overall: 전반적인, 전체에 걸친 
▢ property: 특성, 재산 
▢ realization: 실현, 깨달음 
▢ renew: 갱신하다, 재개하다 
▢ threat: 위협, 우려 
▢ transgenic: 이식 유전자의 
▢ unknown: 알려지지 않은, 미지의 
▢ variety: 다양, (다)품종 

4
 2093-40 91.9
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① Research from the Harwood Institute for Public Innovation in the USA shows that people feel that 'materialism' somehow comes between them and the satisfaction of their social needs. ② A report entitled Yearning for Balance, based on a nationwide survey of Americans, concluded that they were 'deeply ambivalent about wealth and material gain'. ③ A large majority of people wanted society to 'move away from greed and excess toward a way of life more centred on values, community, and family'. ④ But they also felt that these priorities were not shared by most of their fellow Americans, who, they believed, had become 'increasingly atomized, selfish, and irresponsible'. ⑤ As a result they often felt isolated. ⑥ However, the report says, that when brought together in focus groups to discuss these issues, people were 'surprised and excited to find that others share their views'. ⑦ Rather than uniting us with others in a common cause, the unease we feel about the loss of social values and the way we are drawn into the pursuit of material gain is often experienced as if it were a purely private ambivalence which cuts us off from others.



▢ ambivalence: 양면 가치, 모순 
▢ ambivalent: 상반하는 감정을 품은, 불확실한 
▢ atomize: 원자화하다, 산산이 부수다 
▢ conclude: 결론짓다, 체결하다 
▢ entitle: 자격을 주다, 제목을 붙이다 
▢ excess: 과잉, 초과 
▢ greed: 탐욕, 욕심 
▢ increasingly: 점점, 더욱 더 
▢ innovation: 혁신 
▢ institute: 연구소, 전문교육기관 
▢ irresponsible: 무책임한, 책임감이 없는 
▢ majority: 다수의, 대부분 
▢ materialism: 유물론, 물질주의 
▢ nationwide: 전국적인, 국가적으로 
▢ priority: 우선, 중요 
▢ purely: 순수하게, 순전히 
▢ pursuit: 추구, 추격 
▢ satisfaction: 만족, 충족 
▢ unease: 불안, 걱정 
▢ unite: 통합하다, 통일하다 
▢ yearn: 갈망하다, 염원 

5
 2093-31 91.7
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① "What's in a name? ② That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet." ③ This thought of Shakespeare's points up a difference between roses and, say, paintings. ④ Natural objects, such as roses, are not interpreted. ⑤ They are not taken as vehicles of meanings and messages. ⑥ They belong to no tradition, strictly speaking have no style, and are not understood within a framework of culture and convention. ⑦ Rather, they are sensed and savored relatively directly, without intellectual mediation, and so what they are called, either individually or collectively, has little bearing on our experience of them. ⑧ What a work of art is titled, on the other hand, has a significant effect on the aesthetic face it presents and on the qualities we correctly perceive in it. ⑨ A painting of a rose, by a name other than the one it has, might very well smell different, aesthetically speaking. ⑩ The painting titled Rose of Summer and an indiscernible painting titled Vermillion Womanhood are physically, but also semantically and aesthetically, distinct objects of art.



▢ aesthetic: 미학, 미적 
▢ aesthetically: 미적으로, 심미적으로 
▢ collectively: 전체적으로, 일괄하여 
▢ convention: 관습, 회의 
▢ distinct: 뚜렷한, 다른 
▢ framework: 틀, 근거 
▢ indiscernible: 식별할 수 없는, 인지할 수 없는 
▢ individually: 개별적으로, 개인적으로 
▢ intellectual: 지적인, 지식인 
▢ interpret: 해석하다, 통역하다 
▢ mediation: 중재, 조정 
▢ relatively: 비교적으로, 상대적으로 
▢ savor: 맛, 풍미 
▢ semantically: 의미론적으로, 의미상으로는 
▢ significant: 중요한, 의미심장한 
▢ strictly: 엄격히, 철저히 
▢ vehicle: 차량, 자동차 
▢ womanhood: 여자임, 여자다운 성격 

6
 2093-22 82.0
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① Music is a human art form, an inseparable part of the human experience everywhere in the world. ② Music is social, and tightly woven into the tapestry of life, and young children are very much a part of this multifaceted fabric. ③ The musical experiences they have provide opportunities for them to know language, behaviors, customs, traditions, beliefs, values, stories, and other cultural nuances. ④ As they become musically skilled through experiences in song and instrumental music, young children can also grow cultural knowledge and sensitivity. ⑤ Music is an extremely important aspect of culture, shaping and transmitting the above-mentioned aspects that characterize groups of people. ⑥ Exposing young children to the world's musical cultures brings them into the cultural conversation, allowing them to learn about self and others in an artistically meaningful and engaging way. ⑦ Prior to the development of social biases and cultural preferences that all too easily turn into prejudices, the opportunity to know people through song, dance, and instrument play is a gift to all who work for the well-balanced development of young children into the responsible citizens they will one day become.



▢ artistically: 예술적으로 
▢ aspect: 양상, 측면 
▢ bias: 편견, 치우침 
▢ characterize: 특징을 나타내다, 규정하다 
▢ expose: 노출하다, 폭로하다 
▢ inseparable: 분리할 수 없는, 뗄 수 없는 
▢ instrumental: 주된 역할을 하는, 기악 
▢ meaningful: 의미 있는, 의미심장한 
▢ mention: 언급하다, 말하다 
▢ multifaceted: 다면의, 많은 측면을 가진 
▢ musically: 음악적으로 
▢ nuance: 미묘한 차이, 음영 
▢ preference: 선호, 좋아하기 
▢ prejudice: 편견, 선입관 
▢ prior: 전의, 앞서 
▢ responsible: 책임이 있는, 담당의 
▢ sensitivity: 감수성, 감도 
▢ transmit: 전송하다, 전달하다 
▢ weave: 짜다, 엮다 

7
 2093-38 76.7
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① We sometimes solve number problems almost without realizing it. ② For example, suppose you are conducting a meeting and you want to ensure that everyone there has a copy of the agenda. ③ You can deal with this by labelling each copy of the handout in turn with the initials of each of those present. ④ As long as you do not run out of copies before completing this process, you will know that you have a sufficient number to go around. ⑤ You have then solved this problem without resorting to arithmetic and without explicit counting. ⑥ There are numbers at work for us here all the same and they allow precise comparison of one collection with another, even though the members that make up the collections could have entirely different characters, as is the case here, where one set is a collection of people, while the other consists of pieces of paper. ⑦ What numbers allow us to do is to compare the relative size of one set with another.



▢ agenda: 의제, 과제 
▢ arithmetic: 산술, 산수 
▢ collection: 수집, 모음집 
▢ comparison: 비교 
▢ conduct: 실시하다, 수행하다 
▢ consist: 이루어지다, 구성되다 
▢ explicit: 명백한, 노골적인 
▢ handout: 유인물, 나눠주다 
▢ initial: 초기의, 원래의 
▢ label: 상표/표시, ~라고 부르다 
▢ relative: 상대적인, 친척 
▢ resort: 의존하다, 휴양지 
▢ sufficient: 충분한, 만족스러운 
▢ suppose: 생각하다, 가정하다 

8
 2093-23 74.7
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① Conventional wisdom in the West, influenced by philosophers from Plato to Descartes, credits individuals and especially geniuses with creativity and originality. ② Social and cultural influences and causes are minimized, ignored, or eliminated from consideration at all. ③ Thoughts, original and conventional, are identified with individuals, and the special things that individuals are and do are traced to their genes and their brains. ④ The "trick" here is to recognize that individual humans are social constructions themselves, embodying and reflecting the variety of social and cultural influences they have been exposed to during their lives. ⑤ Our individuality is not denied, but it is viewed as a product of specific social and cultural experiences. ⑥ The brain itself is a social thing, influenced structurally and at the level of its connectivities by social environments. ⑦ The "individual" is a legal, religious, and political fiction just as the "I" is a grammatical illusion.



▢ connectivity: 접속 가능성 
▢ consideration: 고려, 배려 
▢ conventional: 전통적인, 틀에 박힌 
▢ credit: 신용, 학점 
▢ eliminate: 없애다, 제거하다 
▢ embody: 구체화하다, 구현하다 
▢ expose: 노출하다, 폭로하다 
▢ gene: 유전자 
▢ grammatical: 문법적인 
▢ identify: 확인하다, 알아보다 
▢ illusion: 착각, 환상 
▢ individuality: 개성, 특성 
▢ legal: 법적인, 법률상의 
▢ minimize: 과소평가하다, 줄이다 
▢ originality: 독창성, 진품 
▢ religious: 종교의, 신앙의 
▢ specific: 특정한, 구체적인 
▢ structurally: 구조적으로, 구조상 
▢ trace: 추적하다, 흔적 
▢ variety: 다양, (다)품종 

9
 2093-35 74.1
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① In a highly commercialized setting such as the United States, it is not surprising that many landscapes are seen as commodities. ② In other words, they are valued because of their market potential. ③ Residents develop an identity in part based on how the landscape can generate income for the community. ④ This process involves more than the conversion of the natural elements into commodities. ⑤ The landscape itself, including the people and their sense of self, takes on the form of a commodity. ⑥ Over time, the landscape identity can evolve into a sort of "logo" that can be used to sell the stories of the landscape. ⑦ Thus, California's "Wine Country," Florida's "Sun Coast," or South Dakota's "Badlands" shape how both outsiders and residents perceive a place, and these labels build a set of expectations associated with the culture of those who live there.



▢ associate: 관련시키다, 연관 
▢ commercialize: …을 상업화하다, 상품화하다 
▢ commodity: 상품, 원자재 
▢ conversion: 전환, 변화 
▢ elements: 요소, 원소(元素) 
▢ evolve: 진화하다, 발전하다 
▢ generate: 생성하다, 발생시키다 
▢ identity: 정체성, 자신 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ label: 상표/표시, ~라고 부르다 
▢ potential: 잠재적인, 가능성 있는 

10
 2093-29 68.6
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① Competitive activities can be more than just performance showcases where the best is recognized and the rest are overlooked. ② The provision of timely, constructive feedback to participants on performance is an asset that some competitions and contests offer. ③ In a sense, all competitions give feedback. ④ For many, this is restricted to information about whether the participant is an award- or prizewinner. ⑤ The provision of that type of feedback can be interpreted as shifting the emphasis to demonstrating superior performance but not necessarily excellence. ⑥ The best competitions promote excellence, not just winning or "beating" others. ⑦ The emphasis on superiority is what we typically see as fostering a detrimental effect of competition. ⑧ Performance feedback requires that the program go beyond the "win, place, or show" level of feedback. ⑨ Information about performance can be very helpful, not only to the participant who does not win or place but also to those who do.



▢ asset: 자산, 재산 
▢ competitive: 경쟁의, 경쟁력을 지닌 
▢ constructive: 건설적인 
▢ demonstrate: 입증하다, 증명하다 
▢ detrimental: 해로운, 불리한 
▢ emphasis: 강조, 중점 
▢ excellence: 우수함, 장점 
▢ foster: 육성하다, 증진하다 
▢ interpret: 해석하다, 통역하다 
▢ overlook: 간과하다, 눈감아주다 
▢ prizewinner: 수상자, 수상 작품 
▢ promote: 홍보하다, 증진하다 
▢ provision: 규정/조항, 공급/제공 
▢ restrict: 제한하다, 규제 
▢ shift: 변화, 전환 
▢ superior: 우수한, 상사 
▢ superiority: 우월, 우수 
▢ timely: 적시의, 때맞춘 
▢ typically: 일반적으로, 보통은 

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