ℛ TOP-TIER READING from 2232


1
 2232-29 105.7
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Despite abundant warnings that we shouldn't measure ourselves against others, most of us still do. ② We're not only meaning-seeking creatures but social ones as well, constantly making interpersonal comparisons to evaluate ourselves, improve our standing, and enhance our self-esteem. ③ But the problem with social comparison is that it often backfires. ④ When comparing ourselves to someone who's doing better than we are, we often feel inadequate for not doing as well. ⑤ This sometimes leads to what psychologists call malignant envy, the desire for someone to meet with misfortune ("I wish she didn't have what she has"). ⑥ Also, comparing ourselves with someone who's doing worse than we are risks scorn, the feeling that others are something undeserving of our beneficence ("She's beneath my notice"). ⑦ Then again, comparing ourselves to others can also lead to benign envy, the longing to reproduce someone else's accomplishments without wishing them ill ("I wish I had what she has"), which has been shown in some circumstances to inspire and motivate us to increase our efforts in spite of a recent failure.



▢ abundant: 풍부한, 많은 
▢ accomplishment: 성취, 업적 
▢ backfire: 역효과, 역풍 
▢ beneath: 아래에, 밑에 
▢ beneficence: 선행, 은혜 
▢ benign: 친절한, 온화한 
▢ circumstances: 상황, 부수적인 일 
▢ comparison: 비교 
▢ enhance: 향상하다, 강화하다 
▢ envy: 부러워하다, 질투하다 
▢ evaluate: 평가하다, 측정하다 
▢ inadequate: 부족한, 부적절한 
▢ interpersonal: 대인 관계의, 사람과 사람 사이의 
▢ malignant: 악의에 찬, 악성인 
▢ misfortune: 불행, 역경 
▢ motivate: 동기 부여, 의욕 
▢ scorn: 경멸하다, 냉소적이다 
▢ undeserving: 가치가 없는 

2
 2232-40 94.7
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Distance is a reliable indicator of the relationship between two people. ② Strangers stand further apart than do acquaintances, acquaintances stand further apart than friends, and friends stand further apart than romantic partners. ③ Sometimes, of course, these rules are violated. ④ Recall the last time you rode 20 stories in an elevator packed with total strangers. ⑤ The sardine-like experience no doubt made the situation a bit uncomfortable. ⑥ With your physical space violated, you may have tried to create "psychological" space by avoiding eye contact, focusing instead on the elevator buttons. ⑦ By reducing closeness in one nonverbal channel (eye contact), one can compensate for unwanted closeness in another channel (proximity). ⑧ Similarly, if you are talking with someone who is seated several feet away at a large table, you are likely to maintain constant eye contact ― something you might feel uncomfortable doing if you were standing next to each other.



▢ acquaintance: 아는 사람, 인물 
▢ closeness: 정확, 접근 
▢ compensate: 보상하다, 보완하다 
▢ constant: 일정한, 지속적인 
▢ indicator: 지표, 지수 
▢ nonverbal: 비언어적인 
▢ proximity: 근접, 가까움 
▢ psychological: 심리학의, 정신의 
▢ sardine: 정어리, 꽉 들어차게 하다 
▢ unwanted: 요구되지 않은, 불필요한 
▢ violate: 위반하다, 침해하다 

3
 2232-37 84.7
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① There is no doubt that the length of some literary works is overwhelming. ② Reading or translating a work in class, hour after hour, week after week, can be such a boring experience that many students never want to open a foreign language book again. ③ Extracts provide one type of solution. ④ The advantages are obvious: reading a series of passages from different works produces more variety in the classroom, so that the teacher has a greater chance of avoiding monotony, while still giving learners a taste at least of an author's special flavour. ⑤ On the other hand, a student who is only exposed to 'bite-sized chunks' will never have the satisfaction of knowing the overall pattern of a book, which is after all the satisfaction most of us seek when we read something in our own language. ⑥ Moreover, there are some literary features that cannot be adequately illustrated by a short excerpt: the development of plot or character, for instance, with the gradual involvement of the reader that this implies; or the unfolding of a complex theme through the juxtaposition of contrasting views.



▢ adequately: 적절히, 충분히 
▢ author: 작가, 저자 
▢ chunk: 큰 덩어리, 부분 
▢ excerpt: 발췌, 인용 
▢ expose: 노출하다, 폭로하다 
▢ extract: 추출하다, 농축액 
▢ flavour: 맛, 향 
▢ gradual: 점진적인, 조금씩 
▢ illustrate: 설명하다, 삽화를 넣다 
▢ imply: 암시하다, 함축하다 
▢ involvement: 관련, 개입 
▢ juxtaposition: 병치 
▢ literary: 문학의, 작품의 
▢ monotony: 단조로움, 단음 
▢ overall: 전반적인, 전체에 걸친 
▢ overwhelm: 압도하다, 사로잡히다 
▢ passage: 통과, 통로 
▢ plot: 음모, 줄거리 
▢ satisfaction: 만족, 충족 
▢ unfold: 전개하다, 진행되다 
▢ variety: 다양, (다)품종 

4
 2232-24 81.4
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① The realization of human domination over the environment began in the late 1700s with the industrial revolution. ② Advances in manufacturing transformed societies and economies while producing significant impacts on the environment. ③ American society became structured on multiple industries' capitalistic goals as the development of the steam engine led to the mechanized production of goods in mass quantities. ④ Rural agricultural communities with economies based on handmade goods and agriculture were abandoned for life in urban cities with large factories based on an economy of industrialized manufacturing. ⑤ Innovations in the production of textiles, iron, and steel provided increased profits to private companies. ⑥ Simultaneously, those industries exerted authority over the environment and began dumping hazardous by-products in public lands and waterways.



▢ abandon: 버리다, 포기하다 
▢ advance: 발전, 진출 
▢ agricultural: 농업의, 농산의 
▢ agriculture: 농업, 축산 
▢ authority: 당국, 권한 
▢ capitalistic: 자본주의적인, 자본의 
▢ domination: 우세, 지배 
▢ exert: 영향을 미치다, 행사하다 
▢ hazardous: 위험한, 모험적인 
▢ industrial: 산업의, 공업의 
▢ industrialize: …을 산업화하다 
▢ innovation: 혁신 
▢ manufacture: 제조, 생산 
▢ mechanize: 기계화하다, 자동화하다 
▢ profit: 이익, 수익 
▢ quantity: 양, 수량 
▢ realization: 실현, 깨달음 
▢ rural: 농업의, 시골의 
▢ significant: 중요한, 의미심장한 
▢ simultaneously: 동시에, 일제히 
▢ textile: 섬유, 직물 
▢ transform: 바꾸어 놓다, 변화시키다 

5
 2232-32 81.2
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① When you're driving a car, your memory of how to operate the vehicle comes from one set of brain cells; the memory of how to navigate the streets to get to your destination springs from another set of neurons; the memory of driving rules and following street signs originates from another family of brain cells; and the thoughts and feelings you have about the driving experience itself, including any close calls with other cars, come from yet another group of cells. ② You do not have conscious awareness of all these separate mental plays and cognitive neural firings, yet they somehow work together in beautiful harmony to synthesize your overall experience. ③ In fact, we don't even know the real difference between how we remember and how we think. ④ But, we do know they are strongly intertwined. ⑤ That is why truly improving memory can never simply be about using memory tricks, although they can be helpful in strengthening certain components of memory. ⑥ Here's the bottom line: To improve and preserve memory at the cognitive level, you have to work on all functions of your brain.



▢ awareness: 인식, 의식 
▢ cognitive: 인식의, 인지의 
▢ component: 성분, 구성 요소 
▢ conscious: 의식한, 친화적 
▢ destination: 목적지, 관광지 
▢ intertwine: 꼬아 짜다, 관련지우다 
▢ mental: 정신의, 지적인 
▢ neural: 신경의, 신경 중추의 
▢ neuron: 신경 단위 
▢ operate: 운영하다, 영업하다 
▢ originate: 만들어지다, 발생하다 
▢ overall: 전반적인, 전체에 걸친 
▢ separate: 분리하다, 구분하다 
▢ strengthen: 강화하다, 강하다 
▢ synthesize: …을 종합하다, 합성하다 
▢ vehicle: 차량, 자동차 

6
 2232-30 79.2
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① What exactly does normal science involve? ② According to Thomas Kuhn it is primarily a matter of puzzle-solving. ③ However successful a paradigm is, it will always encounter certain problems ― phenomena which it cannot easily accommodate, or mismatches between the theory's predictions and the experimental facts. ④ The job of the normal scientist is to try to eliminate these minor puzzles while making as few changes as possible to the paradigm. ⑤ So normal science is a conservative activity - its practitioners are not trying to make any earth-shattering discoveries, but rather just to develop and extend the existing paradigm. ⑥ In Kuhn's words, 'normal science does not aim at novelties of fact or theory, and when successful finds none'. ⑦ Above all, Kuhn stressed that normal scientists are not trying to test the paradigm. ⑧ On the contrary, they accept the paradigm unquestioningly, and conduct their research within the limits it sets. ⑨ If a normal scientist gets an experimental result which conflicts with the paradigm, they will usually assume that their experimental technique is faulty, not that the paradigm is wrong.



▢ accommodate: 수용하다, 맞추다 
▢ assume: 생각하다, 가정하다 
▢ conduct: 실시하다, 수행하다 
▢ conflict: 갈등, 분쟁 
▢ conservative: 보수적인, 보수주의자 
▢ eliminate: 없애다, 제거하다 
▢ encounter: 만나다, 마주치다 
▢ exist: 존재하다, 있다 
▢ experimental: 실험의, 경험적인 
▢ extend: 확장하다, 연장하다 
▢ faulty: 결점이 있는, 불완전한 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ mismatch: 불일치, 미스매치 
▢ novelty: 새로움, 신기함 
▢ phenomenon: 현상, 장관 
▢ practitioner: 개업자, 개업 의사 
▢ prediction: 예측, 추정 
▢ primarily: 주로, 우선 
▢ shatter: 산산이 부서지다, 파괴 
▢ unquestioningly: 의문을 품지 않고 

7
 2232-39 69.1
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① A supply schedule refers to the ability of a business to change their production rates to meet the demand of consumers. ② Some businesses are able to increase their production level quickly in order to meet increased demand. ③ However, sporting clubs have a fixed, or inflexible (inelastic) production capacity. ④ They have what is known as a fixed supply schedule. ⑤ It is worth noting that this is not the case for sales of clothing, equipment, memberships and memorabilia. ⑥ But clubs and teams can only play a certain number of times during their season. ⑦ If fans and members are unable to get into a venue, that revenue is lost forever. ⑧ Although sport clubs and leagues may have a fixed supply schedule, it is possible to increase the number of consumers who watch. ⑨ For example, the supply of a sport product can be increased by providing more seats, changing the venue, extending the playing season or even through new television, radio or Internet distribution.



▢ capacity: 능력, 용량 
▢ distribution: 분포, 분배 
▢ equipment: 장비, 설비 
▢ extend: 확장하다, 연장하다 
▢ inelastic: 탄력이 없는, 양보하지 않는 
▢ inflexible: 확고한, 구부릴 수 없는 
▢ memorabilia: 기억할 만한 일, 주요 기사 
▢ revenue: 매출, 수입 
▢ venue: 행위의 현장, 장소 

8
 2232-34 68.7
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① In one example of the important role of laughter in social contexts, Devereux and Ginsburg examined frequency of laughter in matched pairs of strangers or friends who watched a humorous video together compared to those who watched it alone. ② The time individuals spent laughing was nearly twice as frequent in pairs as when alone. ③ Frequency of laughing was only slightly shorter for friends than strangers. ④ According to Devereux and Ginsburg, laughing with strangers served to create a social bond that made each person in the pair feel comfortable. ⑤ This explanation is supported by the fact that in their stranger condition, when one person laughed, the other was likely to laugh as well. ⑥ Interestingly, the three social conditions (alone, paired with a stranger, or paired with a friend) did not differ in their ratings of funniness of the video or of feelings of happiness or anxiousness. ⑦ This finding implies that their frequency of laughter was not because we find things funnier when we are with others but instead we are using laughter to connect with others.



▢ anxiousness: 불안, 염려 
▢ bond: 채권, 결속 
▢ context: 문맥, 상황 
▢ differ: 다르다, 차이 
▢ examine: 검토하다, 조사하다 
▢ explanation: 설명, 해석 
▢ frequency: 주파수, 빈도 
▢ frequent: 잦은, 자주 
▢ humorous: 우스운, 유머러스한 
▢ imply: 암시하다, 함축하다 

9
 2232-38 68.2
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① In the early stages of modern science, scientists communicated their creative ideas largely by publishing books. ② This modus operandi is illustrated not only by Newton's Principia, but also by Copernicus' On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Kepler's The Harmonies of the World, and Galileo's Dialogues Concerning the Two New Sciences. ③ With the advent of scientific periodicals, such as the Transactions of the Royal Society of London, books gradually yielded ground to the technical journal article as the chief form of scientific communication. ④ Of course, books were not abandoned altogether, as Darwin's Origin of Species shows. ⑤ Even so, it eventually became possible for scientists to establish a reputation for their creative contributions without publishing a single book-length treatment of their ideas. ⑥ For instance, the revolutionary ideas that earned Einstein his Nobel Prize ― concerning the special theory of relativity and the photoelectric effect ― appeared as papers in the Annalen der Physik. ⑦ His status as one of the greatest scientists of all time does not depend on the publication of a single book.



▢ abandon: 버리다, 포기하다 
▢ advent: 출현, 도래 
▢ altogether: 전적으로, 모두 함께 
▢ chief: 장관, 최고의 
▢ contribution: 기여, 공헌 
▢ establish: 설립하다, 수립하다 
▢ gradually: 점차적으로, 점진적으로 
▢ illustrate: 설명하다, 삽화를 넣다 
▢ modus: 양식, 방법 
▢ operandi: (라틴어) (일의) 방법, 절차 
▢ origin: 기원, 원산 
▢ periodical: 정기 간행물, 잡지 
▢ photoelectric: 광전 효과의, 광전의 
▢ publication: 출판, 간행물 
▢ publish: 출판하다, 발표하다 
▢ relativity: 상대성, 상대성 원리 
▢ reputation: 명성, 평판 
▢ revolutionary: 혁명의, 혁신적인 
▢ species: 종, 인류 
▢ sphere: 구, 영역 
▢ status: 상태, 지위 
▢ technical: 기술의, 전문의 
▢ transactions: 거래 
▢ yield: 양보, (다)수확 

10
 2232-20 64.3
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Though we are marching toward a more global society, various ethnic groups traditionally do things quite differently, and a fresh perspective is valuable in creating an open-minded child. ② Extensive multicultural experience makes kids more creative (measured by how many ideas they can come up with and by association skills) and allows them to capture unconventional ideas from other cultures to expand on their own ideas. ③ As a parent, you should expose your children to other cultures as often as possible. ④ If you can, travel with your child to other countries; live there if possible. ⑤ If neither is possible, there are lots of things you can do at home, such as exploring local festivals, borrowing library books about other cultures, and cooking foods from different cultures at your house.



▢ association: 협회, 관련 
▢ capture: 잡다, 포착 
▢ ethnic: 민족의, 혈통의 
▢ expand: 확대하다, 확장하다 
▢ expose: 노출하다, 폭로하다 
▢ extensive: 광범위한, 대규모의 
▢ perspective: 관점, 시각 
▢ traditionally: 전통적으로, 예전부터 
▢ unconventional: 관습에 얽매이지 않는, 자유로운 
▢ various: 다양한, 여러가지의 

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