ℛ TOP-TIER READING from 224_i1


1
 224-i1N1 123.5
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Oh Rozy, a 22-year-old from Seoul, is a new social media star who has become very popular in South Korea, gaining 147,000 followers since her Instagram debut in August 2020. ② It's easy to see why she's so popular. ③ She travels the world and has a glamorous lifestyle, with her earliest Instagram posts showing her skydiving over Namibia, backpacking in Egypt, on safari in Botswana, and posing by Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe. ④ Rozy has also promoted brands like Tiffany & Co. and Calvin Klein. ⑤ In fact, by September 2021 she had over 100 business sponsorships, and it was estimated she would make over 1 billion won — or around $700,000 — that year. ⑥ However, four months after she first appeared on social media, it was revealed that Rozy is not real. ⑦ She is actually a virtual character created by advertising company Sidus Studio X, which calls her South Korea's "first virtual influencer. ⑧ "Rozy is designed to appeal to young people, sharing common interests such as fashion, travel and protecting the environment. ⑨ Her modern image also appeals to companies — and unlike human influencers, there is no worry about her behaving badly, or even getting old. ⑩ Rozy has now appeared in magazines, danced in TV commercials and even released several original songs. ⑪ The timing of her debut may have contributed to her success. ⑫ Rozy first appeared in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, when many people couldn't travel, but could still enjoy watching Rozy travel around the world virtually. ⑬ In February 2022, Rozy even appeared in the TV comedy series Dr. Park's Clinic. ⑭ However, she may not yet be ready for acting: According to the All kpop website, some viewers wrote that her appearance was "weird" and "creepy," with one viewer writing, "I thought she was an actual person who is really bad at acting."



▢ appeal: 호소, 항소 
▢ appearance: 외모, 출연 
▢ behave: 행동하다, 처신하다 
▢ commercial: 상업용의, 상업적인 
▢ contribute: 기여하다, 공헌하다 
▢ creepy: 오싹한, 소름끼치는 
▢ estimate: 추정하다, 예상하다 
▢ influencer: 영향을 주는 사람 
▢ pandemic: 전국적인 유행병 
▢ pose: 제기하다, 주장하다 
▢ promote: 홍보하다, 증진하다 
▢ sponsorship: 스폰서십, 후원 
▢ virtual: 가상의, 실질적인 
▢ virtually: 사실상, 거의 
▢ weird: 이상한, 기묘한 

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 2291-38 85.5
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Television is the number one leisure activity in the United States and Europe, consuming more than half of our free time. ② We generally think of television as a way to relax, tune out, and escape from our troubles for a bit each day. ③ While this is true, there is increasing evidence that we are more motivated to tune in to our favorite shows and characters when we are feeling lonely or have a greater need for social connection. ④ Television watching does satisfy these social needs to some extent, at least in the short run. ⑤ Unfortunately, it is also likely to "crowd out" other activities that produce more sustainable social contributions to our social well-being. ⑥ The more television we watch, the less likely we are to volunteer our time or to spend time with people in our social networks. ⑦ In other words, the more time we make for Friends, the less time we have for friends in real life.



▢ contribution: 기여, 공헌 
▢ escape: 탈출하다, 벗어나다 
▢ extent: 정도, 범위 
▢ motivate: 동기 부여, 의욕 
▢ sustainable: 지속 가능한, 유지 가능한 
▢ tune: 조율하다, 곡 

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 2291-31 82.0
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① We worry that the robots are taking our jobs, but just as common a problem is that the robots are taking our judgment. ② In the large warehouses so common behind the scenes of today's economy, human 'pickers' hurry around grabbing products off shelves and moving them to where they can be packed and dispatched. ③ In their ears are headpieces: the voice of 'Jennifer', a piece of software, tells them where to go and what to do, controlling the smallest details of their movements. ④ Jennifer breaks down instructions into tiny chunks, to minimise error and maximise productivity ― for example, rather than picking eighteen copies of a book off a shelf, the human worker would be politely instructed to pick five. ⑤ Then another five. ⑥ Then yet another five. ⑦ Then another three. ⑧ Working in such conditions reduces people to machines made of flesh. ⑨ Rather than asking us to think or adapt, the Jennifer unit takes over the thought process and treats workers as an inexpensive source of some visual processing and a pair of opposable thumbs.



▢ adapt: 적응하다, 각색하다 
▢ chunk: 큰 덩어리, 부분 
▢ dispatch: 보내다/파견하다, 급파 
▢ flesh: 살, 피부 
▢ grab: 잡다, 끌다 
▢ inexpensive: 비싸지 않은, 값이 싼 
▢ instruct: 지시하다, 교육하다 
▢ instructions: 교육, 지시 
▢ judgment: 판단, 심판 
▢ maximise: 최대화하다 
▢ minimise: 최소화하다 
▢ movement: 운동, 움직임 
▢ opposable: 반대할 수 있는, 마주 보게 할 수 있는 
▢ politely: 정중하게, 공손하게 
▢ productivity: 생산성, 생산력 
▢ visual: 시각의, 눈에 보이는 
▢ warehouse: 창고, 도매점 

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 2291-33 81.5
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① The demand for freshness can have hidden environmental costs. ② While freshness is now being used as a term in food marketing as part of a return to nature, the demand for year-round supplies of fresh produce such as soft fruit and exotic vegetables has led to the widespread use of hot houses in cold climates and increasing reliance on total quality control ― management by temperature control, use of pesticides and computer/satellite-based logistics. ③ The demand for freshness has also contributed to concerns about food wastage. ④ Use of 'best before', 'sell by' and 'eat by' labels has legally allowed institutional waste. ⑤ Campaigners have exposed the scandal of over-production and waste. ⑥ Tristram Stuart, one of the global band of anti-waste campaigners, argues that, with freshly made sandwiches, over-ordering is standard practice across the retail sector to avoid the appearance of empty shelf space, leading to high volumes of waste when supply regularly exceeds demand.



▢ appearance: 외모, 출연 
▢ contribute: 기여하다, 공헌하다 
▢ exceed: 넘어서다, 초과하다 
▢ exotic: 이국적인, 이국풍의 
▢ expose: 노출하다, 폭로하다 
▢ freshness: 신선미, 생생함 
▢ institutional: 협회의, 제도의 
▢ label: 상표/표시, ~라고 부르다 
▢ legally: 법적으로, 합법적으로 
▢ logistics: 물류, 화물 
▢ management: 관리, 경영 
▢ pesticide: 농약, 살충제 
▢ reliance: 신뢰, 의존 
▢ retail: 소매, 유통 
▢ scandal: 사건, 의혹 
▢ sector: 부문, 분야 
▢ term: 임기, 용어 
▢ volume: 양, 부피 
▢ wastage: 소모, 손실량 
▢ widespread: 널리 퍼진, 광범위한 

5
 1491-31 80.0
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Some study guides advocate filling out elaborate calendars so you will know what you are supposed to be doing during every minute, hour, and day throughout the entire semester. ② They would have you allocate the time periods to study each subject, to eat meals, to engage in athletic events, to socialize with friends, and so forth. ③ I feel that this approach is a serious mistake. ④ Not only will students be unwilling to follow such schedules, it is undesirable for humans to attempt such strict arrangements. ⑤ Following such a schedule would lead you to feel that your whole life is predetermined and you would quickly become bored with your studies. ⑥ As Frederick Nietzsche, the German philosopher, inquired, "Is not life a hundred times too short for us to bore ourselves?" ⑦ Use calendars for their intended purpose to record significant dates. ⑧ Write down the dates of important events, such as exams and deadlines for term papers, so you will know how much time you have to prepare for them. ⑨ Don't let calendars regulate your life.



▢ advocate: 옹호하다, 주장하다 
▢ allocate: 할당하다, 배분하다 
▢ approach: 접근하다, 접근법 
▢ athletic: 운동의, 선수의 
▢ attempt: 시도하다, 노력 
▢ elaborate: 상세히 말하다, 정교한 
▢ inquire: 문의하다, 조사하다 
▢ intend: 의도하다, 계획하다 
▢ predetermine: 미리 방향짓다, 선결하다 
▢ regulate: 규제하다, 조절하다 
▢ significant: 중요한, 의미심장한 
▢ socialize: 사회화하다, 어울리다 
▢ term: 임기, 용어 
▢ undesirable: 바람직하지 못한, 불쾌한 
▢ unwilling: 꺼리는, 마지못한 

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 2291-23 76.8
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① For creatures like us, evolution smiled upon those with a strong need to belong. ② Survival and reproduction are the criteria of success by natural selection, and forming relationships with other people can be useful for both survival and reproduction. ③ Groups can share resources, care for sick members, scare off predators, fight together against enemies, divide tasks so as to improve efficiency, and contribute to survival in many other ways. ④ In particular, if an individual and a group want the same resource, the group will generally prevail, so competition for resources would especially favor a need to belong. ⑤ Belongingness will likewise promote reproduction, such as by bringing potential mates into contact with each other, and in particular by keeping parents together to care for their children, who are much more likely to survive if they have more than one caregiver.



▢ belongingness: 소속됨, 소유 
▢ caregiver: 돌보는 사람 
▢ contribute: 기여하다, 공헌하다 
▢ criterion: 기준, 평가 
▢ efficiency: 효율, 능률 
▢ evolution: 진화, 변화 
▢ potential: 잠재적인, 가능성 있는 
▢ prevail: 만연하다, 이기다 
▢ promote: 홍보하다, 증진하다 
▢ reproduction: 재현, 번식 
▢ resource: 자원, 자료 
▢ selection: 선택, 선발 

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 2291-32 76.7
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① The prevailing view among developmental scientists is that people are active contributors to their own development. ② People are influenced by the physical and social contexts in which they live, but they also play a role in influencing their development by interacting with, and changing, those contexts. ③ Even infants influence the world around them and construct their own development through their interactions. ④ Consider an infant who smiles at each adult he sees; he influences his world because adults are likely to smile, use "baby talk," and play with him in response. ⑤ The infant brings adults into close contact, making one-on-one interactions and creating opportunities for learning. ⑥ By engaging the world around them, thinking, being curious, and interacting with people, objects, and the world around them, individuals of all ages are "manufacturers of their own development."



▢ consider: 고려하다, 생각한다 
▢ construct: 만들다, 건설하다 
▢ context: 문맥, 상황 
▢ contributor: 기여, 공헌자 
▢ curious: 궁금한, 이상한 
▢ developmental: 개발적인, 발육의 
▢ infant: 유아의, 초기의 
▢ interact: 작용하다, 소통 
▢ interaction: 상호 작용, 관계 
▢ manufacturer: 제조업자, 업체 
▢ prevail: 만연하다, 이기다 

8
 2291-30 70.8
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① It is widely believed that certain herbs somehow magically improve the work of certain organs, and "cure" specific diseases as a result. ② Such statements are unscientific and groundless. ③ Sometimes herbs appear to work, since they tend to increase your blood circulation in an aggressive attempt by your body to eliminate them from your system. ④ That can create a temporary feeling of a high, which makes it seem as if your health condition has improved. ⑤ Also, herbs can have a placebo effect, just like any other method, thus helping you feel better. ⑥ Whatever the case, it is your body that has the intelligence to regain health, and not the herbs. ⑦ How can herbs have the intelligence needed to direct your body into getting healthier? ⑧ That is impossible. ⑨ Try to imagine how herbs might come into your body and intelligently fix your problems. ⑩ If you try to do that, you will see how impossible it seems. ⑪ Otherwise, it would mean that herbs are more intelligent than the human body, which is truly hard to believe.



▢ aggressive: 공격적인, 적극적인 
▢ attempt: 시도하다, 노력 
▢ circulation: 순환, 유통 
▢ direct: 직접의, (다)감독하다 
▢ eliminate: 없애다, 제거하다 
▢ groundless: 근거없는, 사실 무근의 
▢ intelligence: 지능, 정보 
▢ intelligent: 지능이 있는, 지적인 
▢ intelligently: 지적으로, 총명하게 
▢ organs: (정치적인) 기관, 기관(器官) 
▢ placebo: 위약, 아첨 
▢ regain: 되찾다, 회복하다 
▢ specific: 특정한, 구체적인 
▢ statement: 발표, 말함 
▢ temporary: 일시적인, 임시의 
▢ unscientific: 비과학적인, 과학적 지식이 없는 

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 2291-35 69.0
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① The fast-paced evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has radically transformed the dynamics and business models of the tourism and hospitality industry. ② This leads to new levels/forms of competitiveness among service providers and transforms the customer experience through new services. ③ Creating unique experiences and providing convenient services to customers leads to satisfaction and, eventually, customer loyalty to the service provider or brand (i.e., hotels). ④ In particular, the most recent technological boost received by the tourism sector is represented by mobile applications. ⑤ Indeed, empowering tourists with mobile access to services such as hotel reservations, airline ticketing, and recommendations for local attractions generates strong interest and considerable profits.



▢ access: 접근, 이용 
▢ application: 적용, 응용 
▢ attraction: 관광지, 명소 
▢ boost: 늘리다, 부양 
▢ competitiveness: 경쟁력, 장점 
▢ considerable: 상당한 
▢ dynamics: 역학, 역동성 
▢ empower: 권리를 주다 
▢ evolution: 진화, 변화 
▢ generate: 생성하다, 발생시키다 
▢ hospitality: 환대, 대접 
▢ loyalty: 충성, 성실 
▢ mobile: 움직이는, 활동적인 
▢ profit: 이익, 수익 
▢ provider: 제공자, 사업자 
▢ radically: 근본적으로, 급격하게 
▢ recommendation: 추천, 권고 
▢ represent: 대표하다, 나타내다 
▢ reservation: 예약, 보호 구역 
▢ satisfaction: 만족, 충족 
▢ sector: 부문, 분야 
▢ technological: 기술적인 
▢ transform: 바꾸어 놓다, 변화시키다 

10
 2291-37 67.1
😼 주제 모냐옹?


① Most people have a perfect time of day when they feel they are at their best, whether in the morning, evening, or afternoon. ② Some of us are night owls, some early birds, and others in between may feel most active during the afternoon hours. ③ If you are able to organize your day and divide your work, make it a point to deal with tasks that demand attention at your best time of the day. ④ However, if the task you face demands creativity and novel ideas, it's best to tackle it at your "worst" time of day! ⑤ So if you are an early bird, make sure to attack your creative task in the evening, and vice versa for night owls. ⑥ When your mind and body are less alert than at your "peak" hours, the muse of creativity awakens and is allowed to roam more freely. ⑦ In other words, when your mental machinery is loose rather than standing at attention, the creativity flows.



▢ alert: 경계, 주의하다 
▢ awaken: 각성하다, 깨다 
▢ flow: 유동, 흐름 
▢ machinery: 기계, 장치 
▢ mental: 정신의, 지적인 
▢ muse: 명상하다, 심사숙고하다 
▢ novel: 소설, 기발한 
▢ organize: 조직하다, 구성하다 
▢ roam: 돌아다니다, 로밍 
▢ tackle: 해결, 다루다 

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