ℛ TOP-TIER READING from 2293


1
 2293-39 93.2
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① Each new wave of technology is intended to enhance user convenience, as well as improve security, but sometimes these do not necessarily go hand-in-hand. ② For example, the transition from magnetic stripe to embedded chip slightly slowed down transactions, sometimes frustrating customers in a hurry. ③ Make a service too burdensome, and the potential customer will go elsewhere. ④ This obstacle applies at several levels. ⑤ Passwords, double-key identification, and biometrics such as fingerprint-, iris-, and voice recognition are all ways of keeping the account details hidden from potential fraudsters, of keeping your data dark. ⑥ But they all inevitably add a burden to the use of the account. ⑦ On top of the hurdles introduced in accessing his or her money, if a suspected fraud is detected, the account holder has to deal with the phone call asking if he or she made the suspicious transactions. ⑧ This is all useful at some level ― indeed, it can be reassuring knowing that your bank is keeping alert to protect you ― but it becomes tiresome if too many such calls are received.



▢ access: 접근, 이용 
▢ account: 계좌/회계, (다)설명하다/차지하다/말/보고 
▢ alert: 경계, 주의하다 
▢ biometrics: 생물 측정학, 생물 통계학 
▢ burdensome: 귀찮은, 부담이 되는 
▢ convenience: 편의, 편리 
▢ detect: 찾아내다, 감지하다 
▢ embed: 내장, 장착 
▢ enhance: 향상하다, 강화하다 
▢ fingerprint: 지문, 지문을 채취하다 
▢ fraud: 사기, 분식 
▢ fraudsters: 사기꾼 
▢ frustrate: 좌절시키다, 실망시키다 
▢ hurdle: 장애, 극복하다 
▢ identification: 표시, 동정 
▢ inevitably: 불가피하게, 필연적으로 
▢ intend: 의도하다, 계획하다 
▢ obstacle: 장애, 방해 
▢ potential: 잠재적인, 가능성 있는 
▢ reassure: 안심시키다, 확신시키다 
▢ recognition: 인식, 인정 
▢ security: 안보, 보안 
▢ stripe: 줄무늬, 띠 
▢ suspicious: 의심스러운, 수상한 
▢ tiresome: 피곤한, 지겨운 
▢ transactions: 거래 
▢ transition: 변화, 전환 

2
 2293-40 90.8
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① A striving to demonstrate individual personality through designs should not be surprising. ② Most designers are educated to work as individuals, and design literature contains countless references to 'the designer'. ③ Personal flair is without doubt an absolute necessity in some product categories, particularly relatively small objects, with a low degree of technological complexity, such as furniture, lighting, small appliances, and housewares. ④ In larger-scale projects, however, even where a strong personality exercises powerful influence, the fact that substantial numbers of designers are employed in implementing a concept can easily be overlooked. ⑤ The emphasis on individuality is therefore problematic ― rather than actually designing, many successful designer 'personalities' function more as creative managers. ⑥ A distinction needs to be made between designers working truly alone and those working in a group. ⑦ In the latter case, management organization and processes can be equally as relevant as designers' creativity.



▢ absolute: 절대적인, 완전한 
▢ appliance: 가전제품, 기기 
▢ complexity: 복잡함, 난이도 
▢ demonstrate: 입증하다, 증명하다 
▢ distinction: 구별, 차이 
▢ emphasis: 강조, 중점 
▢ employ: 정규직, 고용하다 
▢ flair: 능력, 재능 
▢ implement: 시행하다, 실행하다 
▢ individuality: 개성, 특성 
▢ literature: 문학, 문헌 
▢ management: 관리, 경영 
▢ necessity: 필요성, 필수품 
▢ organization: 조직, 단체 
▢ overlook: 간과하다, 눈감아주다 
▢ problematic: 문제의, 의문의 
▢ reference: 참고, 기준 
▢ relatively: 비교적으로, 상대적으로 
▢ relevant: 관련있는, 적절한 
▢ strive: 노력하다, 애쓰다 
▢ substantial: 실질적인, 상당한 
▢ technological: 기술적인 

3
 2293-38 84.4
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① In everyday life, we tend to see any collection of people as a group. ② However, social psychologists use this term more precisely. ③ In particular, they define a group as two or more people who interact with, and exert mutual influences on, each other. ④ It is this sense of mutual interaction or inter-dependence for a common purpose which distinguishes the members of a group from a mere aggregation of individuals. ⑤ For example, as Kenneth Hodge observed, a collection of people who happen to go for a swim after work on the same day each week does not, strictly speaking, constitute a group because these swimmers do not interact with each other in a structured manner. ⑥ By contrast, a squad of young competitive swimmers who train every morning before going to school is a group because they not only share a common objective (training for competition) but also interact with each other in formal ways (e.g., by warming up together beforehand). ⑦ It is this sense of people coming together to achieve a common objective that defines a "team".



▢ aggregation: 응집, 병합 
▢ collection: 수집, 모음집 
▢ competitive: 경쟁의, 경쟁력을 지닌 
▢ constitute: 구성하다, 간주하다 
▢ define: 정의하다, 말한다 
▢ exert: 영향을 미치다, 행사하다 
▢ formal: 공식적인, 형식적인 
▢ hodge: 남자 이름, 농부 
▢ inter: 간, 협력 
▢ interact: 작용하다, 소통 
▢ interaction: 상호 작용, 관계 
▢ mere: 단순한 
▢ mutual: 상호적인, 서로의 
▢ objective: 객관적인, 목적 
▢ precisely: 정확히, 정밀하게 
▢ squad: 팀, 단 
▢ strictly: 엄격히, 철저히 
▢ term: 임기, 용어 

4
 2293-30 83.5
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① Although the wonders of modern technology have provided people with opportunities beyond the wildest dreams of our ancestors, the good, as usual, is weakened by a downside. ② One of those downsides is that anyone who so chooses can pick up the virtual megaphone that is the Internet and put in their two cents on any of an infinite number of topics, regardless of their qualifications. ③ After all, on the Internet, there are no regulations preventing a kindergarten teacher from offering medical advice or a physician from suggesting ways to safely make structural changes to your home. ④ As a result, misinformation gets disseminated as information, and it is not always easy to differentiate the two. ⑤ This can be particularly frustrating for scientists, who spend their lives learning how to understand the intricacies of the world around them, only to have their work summarily challenged by people whose experience with the topic can be measured in minutes. ⑥ This frustration is then amplified by the fact that, to the general public, both the scientist and the challenger are awarded equal credibility.



▢ amplify: …을 확대하다, 증폭하다 
▢ ancestor: 조상, 선조 
▢ credibility: 진실성, 믿을 수 있음 
▢ differentiate: …을 구별하다, 차별하다 
▢ disseminate: 퍼뜨리다, 전파하다 
▢ downside: 아래쪽의, 아래쪽 
▢ frustrate: 좌절시키다, 실망시키다 
▢ frustration: 좌절, 분노 
▢ infinite: 무한한, 끝없는 
▢ intricacy: 복잡, 착잡 
▢ kindergarten: 유치원 
▢ misinformation: 오보, 오전 
▢ physician: 의사 
▢ qualification: 자격, 자질 
▢ regardless: 상관없이, 관계없이 
▢ regulation: 규제, 규정 
▢ structural: 구조의 
▢ summarily: 즉결로, 즉석에서 
▢ virtual: 가상의, 실질적인 
▢ weaken: 약화시키다, 약해지다 

5
 2293-23 82.7
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① Environmental learning occurs when farmers base decisions on observations of "payoff" information. ② They may observe their own or neighbors' farms, but it is the empirical results they are using as a guide, not the neighbors themselves. ③ They are looking at farming activities as experiments and assessing such factors as relative advantage, compatibility with existing resources, difficulty of use, and "trialability" ― how well can it be experimented with. ④ But that criterion of "trialability" turns out to be a real problem; it's true that farmers are always experimenting, but working farms are very flawed laboratories. ⑤ Farmers cannot set up the controlled conditions of professional test plots in research facilities. ⑥ Farmers also often confront complex and difficult-to-observe phenomena that would be hard to manage even if they could run controlled experiments. ⑦ Moreover farmers can rarely acquire payoff information on more than a few of the production methods they might use, which makes the criterion of "relative advantage" hard to measure.



▢ acquire: 얻다, 인수하다 
▢ assess: 평가, 예측 
▢ compatibility: 호환성, 양립성 
▢ confront: 직면하다, 맞서다 
▢ criterion: 기준, 평가 
▢ empirical: 경험적인, 경험의 
▢ exist: 존재하다, 있다 
▢ experiment: 실험, 시험 
▢ facility: 시설, 설비 
▢ flaw: 결점, 흠 
▢ laboratory: 연구실, 실험실 
▢ observation: 관찰, 관측 
▢ payoff: 청산, 이익 
▢ phenomenon: 현상, 장관 
▢ plot: 음모, 줄거리 
▢ relative: 상대적인, 친척 
▢ resource: 자원, 자료 
▢ trialability: 처리 

6
 2293-29 82.5
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① Recognizing ethical issues is the most important step in understanding business ethics. ② An ethical issue is an identifiable problem, situation, or opportunity that requires a person to choose from among several actions that may be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical. ③ Learning how to choose from alternatives and make a decision requires not only good personal values, but also knowledge competence in the business area of concern. ④ Employees also need to know when to rely on their organizations' policies and codes of ethics or have discussions with co-workers or managers on appropriate conduct. ⑤ Ethical decision making is not always easy because there are always gray areas that create dilemmas, no matter how decisions are made. ⑥ For instance, should an employee report on a co-worker engaging in time theft? ⑦ Should a salesperson leave out facts about a product's poor safety record in his presentation to a customer? ⑧ Such questions require the decision maker to evaluate the ethics of his or her choice and decide whether to ask for guidance.



▢ alternative: 대안, 대체 
▢ appropriate: 적절한, 적합한 
▢ competence: 능력, 권한 
▢ conduct: 실시하다, 수행하다 
▢ dilemma: 어려운 문제 
▢ employee: 직원, 직장인 
▢ ethical: 윤리의, 도덕의 
▢ ethics: 윤리, 윤리학 
▢ evaluate: 평가하다, 측정하다 
▢ guidance: 지도, 지침 
▢ identifiable: 알아볼 수 있는, 식별 가능한 
▢ organization: 조직, 단체 
▢ policy: 정책, 제도 
▢ salesperson: 판매원, 점원 
▢ theft: 절도죄, 도둑질 
▢ unethical: 비윤리적인, 윤리에 어긋나는 

7
 2293-37 80.4
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① Culture operates in ways we can consciously consider and discuss but also in ways of which we are far less cognizant. ② When we have to offer an account of our actions, we consciously understand which excuses might prove acceptable, given the particular circumstances we find ourselves in. ③ In such situations, we use cultural ideas as we would use a particular tool. ④ We select the cultural notion as we would select a screwdriver: certain jobs call for a Phillips head while others require an Allen wrench. ⑤ Whichever idea we insert into the conversation to justify our actions, the point is that our motives are discursively available to us. ⑥ They are not hidden. ⑦ In some cases, however, we are far less aware of why we believe a certain claim to be true, or how we are to explain why certain social realities exist. ⑧ Ideas about the social world become part of our worldview without our necessarily being aware of the source of the particular idea or that we even hold the idea at all.



▢ acceptable: 받아들일 만한, 허용할 수 있는 
▢ account: 계좌/회계, (다)설명하다/차지하다/말/보고 
▢ available: 이용할 수 있는, 이용 가능한 
▢ circumstances: 상황, 부수적인 일 
▢ claim: 주장하다, 요구하다 
▢ cognizant: 인식한, 깨달은 
▢ consciously: 의식적으로, 의도적으로 
▢ consider: 고려하다, 생각한다 
▢ discursively: 두서없이, 산만하게 
▢ exist: 존재하다, 있다 
▢ insert: 삽입하다, 넣다 
▢ justify: 정당화하다, 그럴만한 
▢ notion: 개념, 생각 
▢ operate: 운영하다, 영업하다 
▢ worldview: 세계관, 세계 인식 
▢ wrench: 렌치, 가슴 메이는 

8
 2293-21 80.0
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① Not only musicians and psychologists, but also committed music enthusiasts and experts often voice the opinion that the beauty of music lies in an expressive deviation from the exactly defined score. ② Concert performances become interesting and gain in attraction from the fact that they go far beyond the information printed in the score. ③ In his early studies on musical performance, Carl Seashore discovered that musicians only rarely play two equal notes in exactly the same way. ④ Within the same metric structure, there is a wide potential of variations in tempo, volume, tonal quality and intonation. ⑤ Such variation is based on the composition but diverges from it individually. ⑥ We generally call this 'expressivity'. ⑦ This explains why we do not lose interest when we hear different artists perform the same piece of music. ⑧ It also explains why it is worthwhile for following generations to repeat the same repertoire. ⑨ New, inspiring interpretations help us to expand our understanding, which serves to enrich and animate the music scene. ⑩ A small divergence in my likes compared to yours can send us off into different far corners of the library.



▢ animate: ~에게 생기를 주다, ~을 동화로 만들다 
▢ attraction: 관광지, 명소 
▢ commit: 저지르다, 약속하다 
▢ composition: 구성, 작문 
▢ define: 정의하다, 말한다 
▢ deviation: 편차, 일탈 
▢ diverge: 분기하다, 갈라져 나오다 
▢ divergence: 분기, 일탈 
▢ enrich: 부유하게 하다, 농축하다 
▢ enthusiast: 광, 팬 
▢ expand: 확대하다, 확장하다 
▢ expressivity: 표현성, 발현도 
▢ generation: 세대, 시대 
▢ individually: 개별적으로, 개인적으로 
▢ interpretation: 해석, 통역 
▢ intonation: 억양, 인토네이션 
▢ potential: 잠재적인, 가능성 있는 
▢ repertoire: 레퍼토리, 상연 목록 
▢ seashore: 해변, 바닷가 
▢ tonal: 음색의, 색조의 
▢ variation: 변화, 변형 
▢ volume: 양, 부피 
▢ worthwhile: 가치있는, …할 만한 

9
 2293-22 78.8
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① Historically, drafters of tax legislation are attentive to questions of economics and history, and less attentive to moral questions. ② Questions of morality are often pushed to the side in legislative debate, labeled too controversial, too difficult to answer, or, worst of all, irrelevant to the project. ③ But, in fact, the moral questions of taxation are at the very heart of the creation of tax laws. ④ Rather than irrelevant, moral questions are fundamental to the imposition of tax. ⑤ Tax is the application of a society's theories of distributive justice. ⑥ Economics can go a long way towards helping a legislature determine whether or not a particular tax law will help achieve a particular goal, but economics cannot, in a vacuum, identify the goal. ⑦ Creating tax policy requires identifying a moral goal, which is a task that must involve ethics and moral analysis.



▢ analysis: 분석, 해석 
▢ application: 적용, 응용 
▢ attentive: 주의 깊은, 세심한 
▢ controversial: 논란의, 문제의 
▢ distributive: 분배의, 배분사 
▢ drafter: 밑그림 그리는 사람, 기초자 
▢ economics: 경제, 경제학 
▢ ethics: 윤리, 윤리학 
▢ fundamental: 기본적인, 근본적인 
▢ identify: 확인하다, 알아보다 
▢ imposition: 부담, 부과 
▢ involve: 관련되다, 참여하다 
▢ irrelevant: 관계가 없는, 부적절한 
▢ justice: 정의, 사법 
▢ label: 상표/표시, ~라고 부르다 
▢ legislation: 법안, 입법 
▢ legislative: 입법의, 의회의 
▢ legislature: 의회의, 입법부 
▢ moral: 도덕의, 윤리의 
▢ morality: 도덕성 
▢ policy: 정책, 제도 
▢ taxation: 과세, 세금 
▢ vacuum: 진공, 공백 

10
 2293-34 75.1
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① In trying to explain how different disciplines attempt to understand autobiographical memory the literary critic Daniel Albright said, "Psychology is a garden, literature is a wilderness. ② "He meant, I believe, that psychology seeks to make patterns, find regularity, and ultimately impose order on human experience and behavior. ③ Writers, by contrast, dive into the unruly, untamed depths of human experiences. ④ What he said about understanding memory can be extended to our questions about young children's minds. ⑤ If we psychologists are too bent on identifying the orderly pattern, the regularities of children's minds, we may miss an essential and pervasive characteristic of our topic: the child's more unruly and imaginative ways of talking and thinking. ⑥ It is not only the developed writer or literary scholar who seems drawn toward a somewhat wild and idiosyncratic way of thinking; young children are as well. ⑦ The psychologist interested in young children may have to venture a little more often into the wilderness in order to get a good picture of how children think.



▢ attempt: 시도하다, 노력 
▢ autobiographical: 자서전적인, 자서전체의 
▢ characteristic: 특성, 독특한 
▢ critic: 비평가, 비판가 
▢ discipline: 규율, 기강 
▢ extend: 확장하다, 연장하다 
▢ identify: 확인하다, 알아보다 
▢ idiosyncratic: 특유한, 특이한 
▢ impose: 부과하다, 제한하다 
▢ literary: 문학의, 작품의 
▢ literature: 문학, 문헌 
▢ orderly: 질서있는, 정연한 
▢ pervasive: 퍼지는, 스며드는 
▢ regularity: 질서, 규칙적임 
▢ scholar: 학자, 교수 
▢ ultimately: 마침내, 결국 
▢ unruly: 제멋대로, 다루기 힘든 
▢ untamed: 길들지 않은, 야성의 
▢ venture: 모험, 투기적 사업 
▢ wilderness: 황야, 자연 

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