① What is the difference between fines and fees?
② Fines mean moral disapproval, whereas fees are simply prices that imply no moral judgment.
③ When we charge a fine for littering, we're saying that littering is wrong.
④ Tossing a beer can into the Grand Canyon not only charges cleanup costs.
⑤ It reflects a bad attitude that society wants to discourage.
⑥ Suppose the fine is $100, and a wealthy hiker decides it's worth the convenience of not having to carry his empty cans out of the park.
⑦ He treats the fine as a fee and tosses his cans into the Grand Canyon.
⑧ He pays up, but we think he's done something wrong.
⑨ By treating the Grand Canyon as an expensive trash can, he has failed to appreciate it properly.
① When environmentalists lecture us about the need to save the planet, they sometimes emphasize the importance of saving strangers in distant lands, or the generations that will come after us.
② Alas, the very distance of these "other people" works against any attempt to motivate us to help them: we just cannot get excited about saving the livelihoods of people we have never met and cannot even picture.
③ Humans are deeply sociable creatures, and will seize the chance to help others ― but our capacity to do this depends on an imaginative engagement that is hard to sustain over great distances of time and place.
① Some study guides advocate filling out elaborate calendars so you will know what you are supposed to be doing during every minute, hour, and day throughout the entire semester.
② They would have you allocate the time periods to study each subject, to eat meals, to engage in athletic events, to socialize with friends, and so forth.
③ I feel that this approach is a serious mistake.
④ Not only will students be unwilling to follow such schedules, it is undesirable for humans to attempt such strict arrangements.
⑤ Following such a schedule would lead you to feel that your whole life is predetermined and you would quickly become bored with your studies.
⑥ As Frederick Nietzsche, the German philosopher, inquired, "Is not life a hundred times too short for us to bore ourselves?"
⑦ Use calendars for their intended purpose to record significant dates.
⑧ Write down the dates of important events, such as exams and deadlines for term papers, so you will know how much time you have to prepare for them.
⑨ Don't let calendars regulate your life.
① According to Richard Thaler's theory, people value an object more if their ownership is clearly established.
② In a classic study, people were asked to assess the value of coffee cups which had been gifted to them.
③ Another group in the study was also asked to estimate the value of coffee cups, but these coffee cups were not owned by anyone.
④ The subjects who owned their coffee cups consistently valued them higher than the other subjects, and in some cases they said that they would prefer to keep their coffee cups, even if they were offered money for them.
⑤ However, it seems to apply specifically to objects.
⑥ When people in a similar study were offered tokens which could be exchanged for coffee cups, the cognitive bias was not observed, suggesting that people formed an attachment to the specific object, not to an abstract concept.
① In the not-too-distant future, everyday objects such as shoes, carpets, and toothbrushes will contain technology that collects information.
② You will then be able to personalize these objects, allowing them to change physical state like color or respond to your daily mood.
③ They will also be able to exchange data with other objects and send information to other people.
④ For example, your toothbrush will be capable of analyzing your breath and booking an appointment with your doctor if it detects the smell of lung cancer.
⑤ In other words, what were once just ordinary objects will be increasingly networked and intelligent.
⑥ Manufacturers will use the information generated by these smart products to sell you other services or enhance your "ownership experience."
① When you ask people to rank the days of the week in order of preference, Friday is ranked higher than Sunday, although Friday is a workday and Sunday is not.
② Would people rather work than play?
④ Then, why do people prefer Friday to Sunday?
⑤ The reason is that Friday brings promise ― the promise of the weekend ahead and all the activities we have planned.
⑥ Sunday, while a day of rest, does not bring with it the joy of anticipation.
⑦ To the contrary, although we may be having a picnic in the park or walking around town, these delightful activities are damaged by the anticipation of the full workweek ahead.
⑧ Whether good or bad, our emotional state is determined both by feelings that are triggered by the world at present and those generated by our expectations of the future.
① One of the reasons I've collected a large library of books over the years is because books are a great go-to resource.
② Other than having a conversation with someone who has accomplished what you hope to achieve, in my experience books and published works offer the most in terms of documented research and role models for success.
③ The Internet has quickly become an invaluable tool as well.
④ Whether offline or online, you're trying to find people who have already gone down the road you're traveling, so you can research, model, and benchmark their experience.
⑤ A college professor once told me, "Gary, you're smart, but people have lived before you.
⑥ You're not the first person to dream big, so you'd be wise to study what others have learned first, and then build your actions on the back of their lessons."
① Armand Hammer was a great businessman who died in 1990 at the age of ninety-two.
② He was once asked how a man of his age had the energy to continually travel the world to do business and meet with heads of governments.
③ He said, "I love my work.
④ I can't wait to start a new day.
⑤ I never wake up without being full of ideas.
⑥ Everything is a challenge."
⑦ George Bernard Shaw, one of the most successful writers of all time, said something similar about a hundred years earlier.
⑧ He wrote, "I want to be thoroughly used up when I die, for the harder I work, the more I live."
⑨ I think Hammer and Shaw would have agreed with me that nothing can replace hard work in life.
① Oh Rozy, a 22-year-old from Seoul, is a new social media star who has become very popular in South Korea, gaining 147,000 followers since her Instagram debut in August 2020.
② It's easy to see why she's so popular.
③ She travels the world and has a glamorous lifestyle, with her earliest Instagram posts showing her skydiving over Namibia, backpacking in Egypt, on safari in Botswana, and posing by Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe.
④ Rozy has also promoted brands like Tiffany & Co. and Calvin Klein.
⑤ In fact, by September 2021 she had over 100 business sponsorships, and it was estimated she would make over 1 billion won — or around $700,000 — that year.
⑥ However, four months after she first appeared on social media, it was revealed that Rozy is not real.
⑦ She is actually a virtual character created by advertising company Sidus Studio X, which calls her South Korea's "first virtual influencer.
⑧ "Rozy is designed to appeal to young people, sharing common interests such as fashion, travel and protecting the environment.
⑨ Her modern image also appeals to companies — and unlike human influencers, there is no worry about her behaving badly, or even getting old.
⑩ Rozy has now appeared in magazines, danced in TV commercials and even released several original songs.
⑪ The timing of her debut may have contributed to her success.
⑫ Rozy first appeared in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, when many people couldn't travel, but could still enjoy watching Rozy travel around the world virtually.
⑬ In February 2022, Rozy even appeared in the TV comedy series Dr. Park's Clinic.
⑭ However, she may not yet be ready for acting: According to the All kpop website, some viewers wrote that her appearance was "weird" and "creepy," with one viewer writing, "I thought she was an actual person who is really bad at acting."
① Is the customer always right?
② When customers return a broken product to a famous company, which makes kitchen and bathroom fixtures, the company nearly always offers a replacement to maintain good customer relations.
③ Still, "there are times you've got to say 'no,'" explains the warranty expert of the company, such as when a product is undamaged or has been abused.
④ Entrepreneur Lauren Thorp, who owns an e-commerce company, says, "While the customer is 'always' right, sometimes you just have to fire a customer."
⑤ When Thorp has tried everything to resolve a complaint and realizes that the customer will be dissatisfied no matter what, she returns her attention to the rest of her customers, who she says are "the reason for my success."
① For creatures like us, evolution smiled upon those with a strong need to belong.
② Survival and reproduction are the criteria of success by natural selection, and forming relationships with other people can be useful for both survival and reproduction.
③ Groups can share resources, care for sick members, scare off predators, fight together against enemies, divide tasks so as to improve efficiency, and contribute to survival in many other ways.
④ In particular, if an individual and a group want the same resource, the group will generally prevail, so competition for resources would especially favor a need to belong.
⑤ Belongingness will likewise promote reproduction, such as by bringing potential mates into contact with each other, and in particular by keeping parents together to care for their children, who are much more likely to survive if they have more than one caregiver.
① Many people make a mistake of only operating along the safe zones, and in the process they miss the opportunity to achieve greater things.
② They do so because of a fear of the unknown and a fear of treading the unknown paths of life.
③ Those that are brave enough to take those roads less travelled are able to get great returns and derive major satisfaction out of their courageous moves.
④ Being overcautious will mean that you will miss attaining the greatest levels of your potential.
⑤ You must learn to take those chances that many people around you will not take, because your success will flow from those bold decisions that you will take along the way.
① It is widely believed that certain herbs somehow magically improve the work of certain organs, and "cure" specific diseases as a result.
② Such statements are unscientific and groundless.
③ Sometimes herbs appear to work, since they tend to increase your blood circulation in an aggressive attempt by your body to eliminate them from your system.
④ That can create a temporary feeling of a high, which makes it seem as if your health condition has improved.
⑤ Also, herbs can have a placebo effect, just like any other method, thus helping you feel better.
⑥ Whatever the case, it is your body that has the intelligence to regain health, and not the herbs.
⑦ How can herbs have the intelligence needed to direct your body into getting healthier?
⑧ That is impossible.
⑨ Try to imagine how herbs might come into your body and intelligently fix your problems.
⑩ If you try to do that, you will see how impossible it seems.
⑪ Otherwise, it would mean that herbs are more intelligent than the human body, which is truly hard to believe.
① We worry that the robots are taking our jobs, but just as common a problem is that the robots are taking our judgment.
② In the large warehouses so common behind the scenes of today's economy, human 'pickers' hurry around grabbing products off shelves and moving them to where they can be packed and dispatched.
③ In their ears are headpieces: the voice of 'Jennifer', a piece of software, tells them where to go and what to do, controlling the smallest details of their movements.
④ Jennifer breaks down instructions into tiny chunks, to minimise error and maximise productivity ― for example, rather than picking eighteen copies of a book off a shelf, the human worker would be politely instructed to pick five.
⑥ Then yet another five.
⑦ Then another three.
⑧ Working in such conditions reduces people to machines made of flesh.
⑨ Rather than asking us to think or adapt, the Jennifer unit takes over the thought process and treats workers as an inexpensive source of some visual processing and a pair of opposable thumbs.
① The prevailing view among developmental scientists is that people are active contributors to their own development.
② People are influenced by the physical and social contexts in which they live, but they also play a role in influencing their development by interacting with, and changing, those contexts.
③ Even infants influence the world around them and construct their own development through their interactions.
④ Consider an infant who smiles at each adult he sees; he influences his world because adults are likely to smile, use "baby talk," and play with him in response.
⑤ The infant brings adults into close contact, making one-on-one interactions and creating opportunities for learning.
⑥ By engaging the world around them, thinking, being curious, and interacting with people, objects, and the world around them, individuals of all ages are "manufacturers of their own development."
① The demand for freshness can have hidden environmental costs.
② While freshness is now being used as a term in food marketing as part of a return to nature, the demand for year-round supplies of fresh produce such as soft fruit and exotic vegetables has led to the widespread use of hot houses in cold climates and increasing reliance on total quality control ― management by temperature control, use of pesticides and computer/satellite-based logistics.
③ The demand for freshness has also contributed to concerns about food wastage.
④ Use of 'best before', 'sell by' and 'eat by' labels has legally allowed institutional waste.
⑤ Campaigners have exposed the scandal of over-production and waste.
⑥ Tristram Stuart, one of the global band of anti-waste campaigners, argues that, with freshly made sandwiches, over-ordering is standard practice across the retail sector to avoid the appearance of empty shelf space, leading to high volumes of waste when supply regularly exceeds demand.
① In the studies of Colin Cherry at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology back in the 1950s, his participants listened to voices in one ear at a time and then through both ears in an effort to determine whether we can listen to two people talk at the same time.
② One ear always contained a message that the listener had to repeat back (called "shadowing") while the other ear included people speaking.
③ The trick was to see if you could totally focus on the main message and also hear someone talking in your other ear.
④ Cleverly, Cherry found it was impossible for his participants to know whether the message in the other ear was spoken by a man or woman, in English or another language, or was even comprised of real words at all!
⑤ In other words, people could not process two pieces of information at the same time.
① The fast-paced evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has radically transformed the dynamics and business models of the tourism and hospitality industry.
② This leads to new levels/forms of competitiveness among service providers and transforms the customer experience through new services.
③ Creating unique experiences and providing convenient services to customers leads to satisfaction and, eventually, customer loyalty to the service provider or brand (i.e., hotels).
④ In particular, the most recent technological boost received by the tourism sector is represented by mobile applications.
⑤ Indeed, empowering tourists with mobile access to services such as hotel reservations, airline ticketing, and recommendations for local attractions generates strong interest and considerable profits.
① With nearly a billion hungry people in the world, there is obviously no single cause.
② However, far and away the biggest cause is poverty.
③ Seventy-nine percent of the world's hungry live in nations that are net exporters of food.
⑤ The reason people are hungry in those countries is that the products produced there can be sold on the world market for more than the local citizens can afford to pay for them.
⑥ In the modern age you do not starve because you have no food, you starve because you have no money.
⑦ So the problem really is that food is, in the grand scheme of things, too expensive and many people are too poor to buy it.
⑧ The answer will be in continuing the trend of lowering the cost of food.
① Most people have a perfect time of day when they feel they are at their best, whether in the morning, evening, or afternoon.
② Some of us are night owls, some early birds, and others in between may feel most active during the afternoon hours.
③ If you are able to organize your day and divide your work, make it a point to deal with tasks that demand attention at your best time of the day.
④ However, if the task you face demands creativity and novel ideas, it's best to tackle it at your "worst" time of day!
⑤ So if you are an early bird, make sure to attack your creative task in the evening, and vice versa for night owls.
⑥ When your mind and body are less alert than at your "peak" hours, the muse of creativity awakens and is allowed to roam more freely.
⑦ In other words, when your mental machinery is loose rather than standing at attention, the creativity flows.
① Television is the number one leisure activity in the United States and Europe, consuming more than half of our free time.
② We generally think of television as a way to relax, tune out, and escape from our troubles for a bit each day.
③ While this is true, there is increasing evidence that we are more motivated to tune in to our favorite shows and characters when we are feeling lonely or have a greater need for social connection.
④ Television watching does satisfy these social needs to some extent, at least in the short run.
⑤ Unfortunately, it is also likely to "crowd out" other activities that produce more sustainable social contributions to our social well-being.
⑥ The more television we watch, the less likely we are to volunteer our time or to spend time with people in our social networks.
⑦ In other words, the more time we make for Friends, the less time we have for friends in real life.
① We often associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an object feels when we touch it.
② In this way, our senses provide us with a qualitative indication of temperature.
③ Our senses, however, are unreliable and often mislead us.
④ For example, if you stand in bare feet with one foot on carpet and the other on a tile floor, the tile feels colder than the carpet even though both are at the same temperature.
⑤ The two objects feel different because tile transfers energy by heat at a higher rate than carpet does.
⑥ Your skin "measures" the rate of energy transfer by heat rather than the actual temperature.
⑦ What we need is a reliable and reproducible method for measuring the relative hotness or coldness of objects rather than the rate of energy transfer.
⑧ Scientists have developed a variety of thermometers for making such quantitative measurements.