1
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-21]

But wait, what drives these industrial activities?


When it comes to climate change, many blame the fossil fuel industry for pumping greenhouse gases, the agricultural sector for burning rainforests, or the fashion industry for producing excessive clothes.
Our consumption. Climate change is a summed product of each person's behavior. For example, the fossil fuel industry is a popular scapegoat in the climate crisis. We provide them strong financial incentives: some people regularly travel on airplanes and cars that burn fossil fuels. Some people waste electricity generated by burning fuel in power plants. Some people use and throw away plastic products derived from crude oil every day. Blaming the fossil fuel industry while engaging in these behaviors is a slap in our own face.



2
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-23]

This is such an encouraging premise: bottom line ― we can intentionally create the habits for the brain to be happier.


We used to think that the brain never changed, but according to the neuroscientist Richard Davidson, we now know that this is not true ― specific brain circuits grow stronger through regular practice. He explains, "Well-being is fundamentally no different than learning to play the cello. If one practices the skills of well-being, one will get better at it." What this means is that you can actually train your brain to become more grateful, relaxed, or confident, by repeating experiences that evoke gratitude, relaxation, or confidence. Your brain is shaped by the thoughts you repeat. The more neurons fire as they are activated by repeated thoughts and activities, the faster they develop into neural pathways, which cause lasting changes in the brain. Or in the words of Donald Hebb, "Neurons that fire together wire together."




3
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-24]

This posed a challenge to traditional roles in society.


In modern times, society became more dynamic. Social mobility increased, and people began to exercise a higher degree of choice regarding, for instance, their profession, their marriage, or their religion.
It was less evident that one needed to commit to the roles one was born into when alternatives could be realized. Increasing control over one's life choices became not only possible but desired. Identity then became a problem. It was no longer almost ready-made at birth but something to be discovered. Traditional role identities prescribed by society began to appear as masks imposed on people whose real self was to be found somewhere underneath.



4
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-29]

This is partly due to potassium being a blocker against magnesium absorption by plants.


The reduction of minerals in our food is the result of using pesticides and fertilizers that kill off beneficial bacteria, earthworms, and bugs in the soil that create many of the essential nutrients in the first place and prevent the uptake of nutrients into the plant. Fertilizing crops with nitrogen and potassium has led to declines in magnesium, zinc, iron and iodine. For example, there has been on average about a 30% decline in the magnesium content of wheat.
Lower magnesium levels in soil also occur with acidic soils and around 70% of the farmland on earth is now acidic. Thus, the overall characteristics of soil determine the accumulation of minerals in plants. Indeed, nowadays our soil is less healthy and so are the plants grown on it.



5
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-29]

Thus, the overall characteristics of soil determine the accumulation of minerals in plants.


The reduction of minerals in our food is the result of using pesticides and fertilizers that kill off beneficial bacteria, earthworms, and bugs in the soil that create many of the essential nutrients in the first place and prevent the uptake of nutrients into the plant. Fertilizing crops with nitrogen and potassium has led to declines in magnesium, zinc, iron and iodine. For example, there has been on average about a 30% decline in the magnesium content of wheat. This is partly due to potassium being a blocker against magnesium absorption by plants. Lower magnesium levels in soil also occur with acidic soils and around 70% of the farmland on earth is now acidic.
Indeed, nowadays our soil is less healthy and so are the plants grown on it.



6
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-30]

This is most successful in situations where individuals are at greatest threat during a particular life stage.


For species approaching extinction, zoos can act as a last chance for survival. Recovery programs are established to coordinate the efforts of field conservationists and wildlife authorities. As populations of those species diminish it is not unusual for zoos to start captive breeding programs. Captive breeding acts to protect against extinction. In some cases captive-bred individuals may be released back into the wild, supplementing wild populations.
For example, turtle eggs may be removed from high-risk locations until after they hatch. Crocodile programs have also been successful in protecting eggs and hatchlings, releasing hatchlings once they are better equipped to protect themselves.



7
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-31]

This will allow processing time for them to accept the circumstances and make the most of what's happening.


We don't send telegraphs to communicate anymore, but it's a great metaphor for giving advance notice. Sometimes, you must inform those close to you of upcoming change by conveying important information well in advance. There's a huge difference between saying, "From now on, we will do things differently," which doesn't give people enough time to understand and accept the change, and saying something like, "Starting next month, we're going to approach things differently. "Telegraphing empowers people to adapt. Telegraphing involves the art of seeing an upcoming event or circumstance and giving others enough time to process and accept the change. Telegraph anything that will take people out of what is familiar and comfortable to them.




8
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-32]

On the other hand, when someone suffers from advanced Alzheimer's disease and his memories fade, people often say that he "is not himself anymore," or that it is as if the person "is no longer there," though his body remains unchanged.


Not only does memory underlie our ability to think at all, it defines the content of our experiences and how we preserve them for years to come. Memory makes us who we are. If I were to suffer from heart failure and depend upon an artificial heart, I would be no less myself. If I lost an arm in an accident and had it replaced with an artificial arm, I would still be essentially me. As long as my mind and memories remain intact, I will continue to be the same person, no matter which part of my body (other than the brain) is replaced.




9
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-33]

This memory store allows them to track, within the neural circuits of their brains, the frequency of sound patterns and to use this knowledge to make predictions about the meaning in patterns of sounds.


Over time, babies construct expectations about what sounds they will hear when. They hold in memory the sound patterns that occur on a regular basis. They make hypotheses like, "If I hear this sound first, it probably will be followed by that sound. "Scientists conclude that much of babies' skill in learning language is due to their ability to calculate statistics. For babies, this means that they appear to pay close attention to the patterns that repeat in language. They remember, in a systematic way, how often sounds occur, in what order, with what intervals, and with what changes of pitch.




10
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-34]

Thus, they are most likely making their own light not to see, but to be un-seen.


Some deep-sea organisms are known to use bioluminescence as a lure, to attract prey with a little glow imitating the movements of their favorite fish, or like fireflies, as a sexual attractant to find mates. While there are many possible evolutionary theories for the survival value of bioluminescence, one of the most fascinating is to create a cloak of invisibility. The color of almost all bioluminescent molecules is blue-green, the same color as the ocean above. By self-glowing blue-green, the creatures no longer cast a shadow or create a silhouette, especially when viewed from below against the brighter waters above. Rather, by glowing themselves, they can blend into the sparkles, reflections, and scattered blue-green glow of sunlight or moonlight.




11
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-36]

In addition to greater variety, online bookstores were also able to offer aggressive discounts thanks to their lower operating costs.


Roughly twenty years ago, brick-and-mortar stores began to give way to electronic commerce. For good or bad, the shift fundamentally changed consumers' perception of the shopping experience. Nowhere was the shift more obvious than with book sales, which is how online bookstores got their start. Physical bookstores simply could not stock as many titles as a virtual bookstore could. There is only so much space available on a shelf.
The combination of lower prices and greater selection led to the slow, steady rise of online bookstores. Before long, the e-commerce book market naturally expanded to include additional categories, like CDs and DVDs. E-commerce soon snowballed into the enormous industry it is today, where you can buy everything from toilet paper to cars online.



12
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-37]

This broad generalization, however, does not mean that works of literature do not include direct statements.


Literary works, by their nature, suggest rather than explain; they imply rather than state their claims boldly and directly.
Depending on when they were written and by whom, literary works may contain large amounts of direct telling and lesser amounts of suggestion and implication. But whatever the proportion of a work's showing to telling, there is always something for readers to interpret. Thus we ask the question "What does the text suggest?" as a way to approach literary interpretation, as a way to begin thinking about a text's implications. What a text implies is often of great interest to us. And our work of figuring out a text's implications tests our analytical powers. In considering what a text suggests, we gain practice in making sense of texts.



13
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-37]

But whatever the proportion of a work's showing to telling, there is always something for readers to interpret.


Literary works, by their nature, suggest rather than explain; they imply rather than state their claims boldly and directly. This broad generalization, however, does not mean that works of literature do not include direct statements. Depending on when they were written and by whom, literary works may contain large amounts of direct telling and lesser amounts of suggestion and implication.
Thus we ask the question "What does the text suggest?" as a way to approach literary interpretation, as a way to begin thinking about a text's implications. What a text implies is often of great interest to us. And our work of figuring out a text's implications tests our analytical powers. In considering what a text suggests, we gain practice in making sense of texts.



14
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-37]

This broad generalization, however, does not mean that works of literature do not include direct statements.


Literary works, by their nature, suggest rather than explain; they imply rather than state their claims boldly and directly.
Depending on when they were written and by whom, literary works may contain large amounts of direct telling and lesser amounts of suggestion and implication. But whatever the proportion of a work's showing to telling, there is always something for readers to interpret. Thus we ask the question "What does the text suggest?" as a way to approach literary interpretation, as a way to begin thinking about a text's implications. What a text implies is often of great interest to us. And our work of figuring out a text's implications tests our analytical powers. In considering what a text suggests, we gain practice in making sense of texts.



15
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-37]

Thus we ask the question "What does the text suggest?" as a way to approach literary interpretation, as a way to begin thinking about a text's implications.


Literary works, by their nature, suggest rather than explain; they imply rather than state their claims boldly and directly. This broad generalization, however, does not mean that works of literature do not include direct statements. Depending on when they were written and by whom, literary works may contain large amounts of direct telling and lesser amounts of suggestion and implication. But whatever the proportion of a work's showing to telling, there is always something for readers to interpret.
What a text implies is often of great interest to us. And our work of figuring out a text's implications tests our analytical powers. In considering what a text suggests, we gain practice in making sense of texts.



16
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-38]

But in reality, the large majority of supplements are artificial and may not even be completely absorbed by your body.


According to top nutrition experts, most nutrients are better absorbed and used by the body when consumed from a whole food instead of a supplement. However, many people feel the need to take pills, powders, and supplements in an attempt to obtain nutrients and fill the gaps in their diets. We hope these will give us more energy, prevent us from catching a cold in the winter, or improve our skin and hair.
Worse, some are contaminated with other substances and contain ingredients not listed on the label. For example, a recent investigative report found heavy metals in 40 percent of 134 brands of protein powders on the market. With little control and regulation, taking supplements is a gamble and often costly.



17
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-38]

However, many people feel the need to take pills, powders, and supplements in an attempt to obtain nutrients and fill the gaps in their diets.


According to top nutrition experts, most nutrients are better absorbed and used by the body when consumed from a whole food instead of a supplement.
We hope these will give us more energy, prevent us from catching a cold in the winter, or improve our skin and hair. But in reality, the large majority of supplements are artificial and may not even be completely absorbed by your body. Worse, some are contaminated with other substances and contain ingredients not listed on the label. For example, a recent investigative report found heavy metals in 40 percent of 134 brands of protein powders on the market. With little control and regulation, taking supplements is a gamble and often costly.



18
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-39]

Imagine, for example, a pendulum which swings back and forth.


In general, kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion, while potential energy represents the energy which is "stored" in a physical system. Moreover, the total energy is always conserved. But while the total energy remains unchanged, the kinetic and potential parts of the total energy can change all the time.
When it swings, it sweeps out an arc and then slows down as it comes closer to its highest point, where the pendulum does not move at all. So at this point, the energy is completely given in terms of potential energy. But after this brief moment of rest, the pendulum swings back again and therefore part of the total energy is then given in the form of kinetic energy. So as the pendulum swings, kinetic and potential energy constantly change into each other.



19
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-39]

But while the total energy remains unchanged, the kinetic and potential parts of the total energy can change all the time.


In general, kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion, while potential energy represents the energy which is "stored" in a physical system. Moreover, the total energy is always conserved.
Imagine, for example, a pendulum which swings back and forth. When it swings, it sweeps out an arc and then slows down as it comes closer to its highest point, where the pendulum does not move at all. So at this point, the energy is completely given in terms of potential energy. So as the pendulum swings, kinetic and potential energy constantly change into each other.



20
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-39]

Moreover, the total energy is always conserved.


In general, kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion, while potential energy represents the energy which is "stored" in a physical system.
But while the total energy remains unchanged, the kinetic and potential parts of the total energy can change all the time. Imagine, for example, a pendulum which swings back and forth. When it swings, it sweeps out an arc and then slows down as it comes closer to its highest point, where the pendulum does not move at all. So at this point, the energy is completely given in terms of potential energy. But after this brief moment of rest, the pendulum swings back again and therefore part of the total energy is then given in the form of kinetic energy. So as the pendulum swings, kinetic and potential energy constantly change into each other.



21
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-39]

So at this point, the energy is completely given in terms of potential energy.


In general, kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion, while potential energy represents the energy which is "stored" in a physical system. Moreover, the total energy is always conserved. But while the total energy remains unchanged, the kinetic and potential parts of the total energy can change all the time. Imagine, for example, a pendulum which swings back and forth. When it swings, it sweeps out an arc and then slows down as it comes closer to its highest point, where the pendulum does not move at all.
But after this brief moment of rest, the pendulum swings back again and therefore part of the total energy is then given in the form of kinetic energy.



22
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-39]

But after this brief moment of rest, the pendulum swings back again and therefore part of the total energy is then given in the form of kinetic energy.


In general, kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion, while potential energy represents the energy which is "stored" in a physical system. Moreover, the total energy is always conserved. But while the total energy remains unchanged, the kinetic and potential parts of the total energy can change all the time. Imagine, for example, a pendulum which swings back and forth. When it swings, it sweeps out an arc and then slows down as it comes closer to its highest point, where the pendulum does not move at all. So at this point, the energy is completely given in terms of potential energy.
So as the pendulum swings, kinetic and potential energy constantly change into each other.



23
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [2111-40]

All this is why the media tends to oversimplify scientific research when presenting it to the public.


There is often a lot of uncertainty in the realm of science, which the general public finds uncomfortable. They don't want "informed guesses," they want certainties that make their lives easier, and science is often unequipped to meet these demands. In particular, the human body is fantastically complex, and some scientific answers can never be provided in black-or-white terms.
In their eyes, they're just "giving people what they want" as opposed to offering more accurate but complex information that very few people will read or understand. A perfect example of this is how people want definitive answers as to which foods are "good" and "bad. "Scientifically speaking, there are no "good" and "bad" foods; rather, food quality exists on a continuum, meaning that some foods are better than others when it comes to general health and well-being.



24
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-902]

This trend was promoted when FIFA, the world's largest soccer association, decided to adopt goal-line technology for the 2014 World Cup.


The suit comes in three parts: the top, the pants, and a plastic core. The top and the pants have several sets of sensors for each of the major muscle groups. Inside the top and the pants, there is a pocket that holds the core. The core reads all the data from the sensors and sends it to a smartphone app. The app lets coaches see in real time which muscle groups are being used during practice. After practice, the athlete can also review his performance. The use of smart clothes greatly helped the Warriors' coaches improve their training program. "I like especially that I can see the players' exhaustion before injury occurs," one of the coaches said. The Warriors continued to win during the 2014-2015 season and went on to win the NBA championship. Technology is also helping to settle possible disputes over referees' calls during games.
Traditionally, FIFA allowed the referees absolute power on the administration of the game. Any errors by the referees were viewed as part of the game. When a referee's call was disputed, both players and audiences often brought complaints about this policy. When the disputed call was about a goal, the complaints sometimes became violent.



25
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-902]

After practice, the athlete can also review his performance.


The suit comes in three parts: the top, the pants, and a plastic core. The top and the pants have several sets of sensors for each of the major muscle groups. Inside the top and the pants, there is a pocket that holds the core. The core reads all the data from the sensors and sends it to a smartphone app. The app lets coaches see in real time which muscle groups are being used during practice.
The use of smart clothes greatly helped the Warriors' coaches improve their training program. "I like especially that I can see the players' exhaustion before injury occurs," one of the coaches said. The Warriors continued to win during the 2014-2015 season and went on to win the NBA championship. Technology is also helping to settle possible disputes over referees' calls during games. This trend was promoted when FIFA, the world's largest soccer association, decided to adopt goal-line technology for the 2014 World Cup. Traditionally, FIFA allowed the referees absolute power on the administration of the game. Any errors by the referees were viewed as part of the game. When a referee's call was disputed, both players and audiences often brought complaints about this policy. When the disputed call was about a goal, the complaints sometimes became violent.



26
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-903]

In addition to the improvement of players' training and referees' calls, technology is helping sports fans enjoy games at another level.


It was goal-line technology that settled any disputes over goals. A system using this technology employs as many as 14 cameras that capture a ball from various angles, showing exactly where the ball is at a certain time. The moment a ball passes the goal line, signals are sent to a watch worn by the referee. The adoption of goal-line technology forever ruled out the possibility of disputes over goals.
Virtual reality is one of the most promising technologies in this area. In the fall of 2015, a group of soccer fans in Portugal had a chance to watch a virtual reality game between their favorite teams. They sat in a movie theater, but felt as if they were part of the game, thanks to the virtual reality gear they wore. Several 360-degree cameras installed on the field sent videos from various angles to a broadcasting station. The station created virtual reality screens out of the videos and then sent them to the gear the fans were wearing. The fans were even able to change perspectives, choosing to be either part of the audience, part of a team, or be on the field itself. It was as if they were actually in the game.



27
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-1002]

This lets us go through their experiences as if the experiences were ours.


What Lessard demonstrated is called empathy−the ability to understand other people's thoughts and feelings and to act on the basis of that understanding. Like Lessard, highly empathic people imagine themselves into the experiences of other people to find out how to best help them. Empathy is not a talent that only special people have. Whoever has a healthy mind is capable of reading other people's minds. It's only a matter of degree. Modern neuroscience tells us that we are all born with empathy and exercise it all the time. In 1990, a team of neuroscientists led by Dr Giacomo Rizzolatti made a historic discovery while monitoring a monkey's brain. What they discovered was "mirror neurons" in our brain that run a simulation of other people's experiences. When we observe other people, mirror neurons imitate their facial expressions and physical responses in our minds to create a virtual experience.




28
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-1003]

Just as we can close our eyes to what we do not want to see, however, we can also turn off our empathy.


The discovery of mirror neurons proved that empathy is a natural human sense, like sight or hearing. Just as we are constantly looking around without focusing on any specific object, we empathize without being conscious of doing so. When we learn that our friends are nervous before an audition, we may imagine their anxiety and try to cheer them up. When we see someone begging on the street, instead of simply walking by, we may consider what it is like to sleep out on a cold winter night and leave some money for them. We may want to do whatever we can to help the person. These little conscious acts of empathy help make our lives happier and our world a better place for everyone.
When we are too stressed out or too absorbed in ourselves to look out for others, our empathy goes to sleep. When we believe that life is a series of competitions that one must win in order to survive, we put empathy on hold and behave selfishly. We may do harm to others and ignore their pain.



29
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-1003]

These little conscious acts of empathy help make our lives happier and our world a better place for everyone.


The discovery of mirror neurons proved that empathy is a natural human sense, like sight or hearing. Just as we are constantly looking around without focusing on any specific object, we empathize without being conscious of doing so. When we learn that our friends are nervous before an audition, we may imagine their anxiety and try to cheer them up. When we see someone begging on the street, instead of simply walking by, we may consider what it is like to sleep out on a cold winter night and leave some money for them. We may want to do whatever we can to help the person.
Just as we can close our eyes to what we do not want to see, however, we can also turn off our empathy. When we are too stressed out or too absorbed in ourselves to look out for others, our empathy goes to sleep. When we believe that life is a series of competitions that one must win in order to survive, we put empathy on hold and behave selfishly. We may do harm to others and ignore their pain.



30
다음의 문장을 삽입하시오 [esp-1004]

Also, we can never be truly happy when people around us are sad.


People with broken empathy make no connection with others, but 99 percent of ordinary people are affected by the feelings of people close to them. When we see our friends laughing, our mirror neurons fire up and mimic their laughter in our minds, making us happy.
Selfish behavior that hurts others cannot bring us happiness. We need to be aware of the power of empathy and make efforts to put it to good use. Picture the mirror neurons in your brain and try to turn them on. Use them to pay more attention to what people around you are thinking and feeling. The power of empathy will help you change your corner of the world for the better.



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